Endometrial Cancer Symptoms After Hysterectomy

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. QUESTION:
    What is the expected life span of endometrial cancer which has metastasized to the lungs and brain?
    My mom has been diagnosed last May with endometrial cancer and underwent hysterectomy and radiation therapy. Just recently, we found out that it has metastasized to the lungs and brain. It breaks our heart to see her suffer much but at this time, there really is no cure available. She is now undergoing palliative radiation treatments to help manage the pain. Just wanted to have an idea how much time we have left with her?

    • ANSWER:
      Wow. This is rare and very unfortunate. We are sorry for you in this difficult time.
      Here's data looking at people in similar situations from a 2003 Canadian study.
      "Between January 1991 and March 2003, there were 1295 women referred to the London Regional Cancer Center with the diagnosis of endometrial cancer, and eight of these women (0.6%) developed brain metastases. Treatment and clinical outcomes were analyzed.
      Three patients had no other evidence of systemic disease, while five had disseminated disease. Four patients had a single brain metastasis, while four had multiple lesions. Seven patients received whole brain radiation therapy in addition to systemic steroids, of which six had temporary improvement or resolution in symptoms. Median survival following diagnosis of brain metastases was 3.5 months."

      This study of almost 1300 women with endometrial cancers found only 8 who developed brain involvement. I did not see a person like this in 20 years as a cancer specialist doctor. Their experience with the 3 to 4 month survival is not a prediction - since it is based on only 8 people.

      Doctors can never predict survival months ahead of time. When it gets down to the last days, it is relatively easy for experienced nurses and doctors to see the end coming - but family members can see that too. You will know when things are headed downhill. Enjoy the good time as much as possible.

      http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WG6-4C0TD88-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=978008158&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a224796b99ddb04c54434c46aa78a7b5

  2. QUESTION:
    Is it safe to take Estrogen after having had a complete hysterectomy for endometrial cancer?
    I'm 44 and am at a higher risk for osteoporosis without any estrogen. However, endometrial cancer is estrogen dependent, so my thought is it wouldn't be wise to take it for risk of recurrence elsewhere. I can deal with the other menopausal symptoms, but am concerned about bone loss since I would typically have had several more years of estrogen before hitting menopause. Any alternatives or thoughts?

    • ANSWER:
      I would say that it is probably not safe for someone who has had endometrial cancer to take estrogen replacement therapy but the only way to find out for sure is to double check with your dr to see what they think.

  3. QUESTION:
    How long does it take to feel better after a hysterectomy?
    I had a total hysterectomy the end of August for endometrial cancer and I still feel tired and run down. If I walk too much such as the supermarket I start hurting really bad in my abdominal area. I am older 55 and have other medical problems and on a government disability for all of them, could this be the reason I still don't feel well from the surgery?

    • ANSWER:
      I felt fine after a couple weeks, granted I was 29 at the time. My mother had one at 44 and felt fine after a couple weeks. Regardless of age or medical history your abdomen should not still be hurting at this point. You need to make an appointment with your doctor ASAP and tell him/her all your symptoms. Best of luck.

  4. QUESTION:
    Are fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia or polyps a precursor to cancer?
    I'm 44 and had heavy menstrual bleeding. Ultrasounds and MRI showed three small fibroids, focal complex hyperplasia and polyps. I've been trying natural remedies which have improved menses dramatically, no longer heavy, nor as painful. Should I still have hysteroscopy or other procedure done, or does the resolution of symptoms mean I'm OK?

    • ANSWER:
      Not a precursor to cancer. Chances are the pain and bleeding will return. Interuterine scraping is another option, but I hear it is painful and not always effective. Hysterectomy may be another option for you if you just want to be done all together.

  5. QUESTION:
    What are the symptoms from your experience of a recurrence of endometrial cancer?

    • ANSWER:
      I was diagnosed with endometrial cancer a little over 8 years ago. It was a total shock. I was having problems with heavy bleeding with my period and went in for a D&C. A polyp was found and removed. I was told it all looked healthy and no worries, but it was sent to the lab.

      When I went in for my 2 week check-up I was told it was endometrial cancer. Because of my family history of cancers (not all "female" cancers, but cancer non the less..and all the women died at young ages...38, 54,55,57,59, etc.) my doctor and I decided to do a totaly hysterectomy.

      I have no had any reoccurrence of it, that I know of. So far things have been well.

      I don't know how old you are, but that might be a suggestion and option for you. I was only 38 at the time I had mine.

      Are there consequences to this? yes. I was thrown into menopause immediately! It was hell. Because of the cancer I could not take hormone replacements (HRT). I thought I was loosing my mind at times.

      That is until I came across a medication that is over the counter and all natural. It's call Estroven (do not use the generic or the extra strength..neither worked well for me...but then again, everyone is different). I talked with my doctor and my pharmacist about using it. Both said they had never known anyone to take it and actually didn't believe it would do me any good...but I had to try something.

      It worked wonders for me. After taking it for 5 days i started to now have as many hot flashes and night sweats and I wasn't as cranky. After a whole month, I hardly had a hot flash at all and I felt much more calm. Now the hot flashes are very far and very few between. I sleep better at nights with hardly any night sweats and my memory has gotten somewhat better (still have problems with peoples names at times).

      I let my doctor and pharmacist know how it worked for me and now other women have tried it and had good results too. Both now reccommend it when women ask.

      My best advice to you is to talk with your doctor if you are having a reoccurrence of this cancer. Get all the information you can from legit sites online. Call the American Cancer Institute and get info from them if you can. Have someone go with you to the doctor and talk about what would be best. Get a second opinion if that would make you feel better. Go with your gut feeling then with what will be the best for you.

      It's a hard decision to make. If you believe in God...pray. I do and I'll say a prayer for you.

      Give your doc a call....Good luck!

  6. QUESTION:
    Can I have a hysterectomy because I have pcso syndrome?
    I am 29 and have pcso I don't want to take medication all my life and was consider g having a hysterectomy I have a family and I'm married! We can't have any more children so this would solve my problems !

    • ANSWER:
      Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) may assume that a hysterectomy or oophorectomy (removal of the ovaries) is an appropriate treatment for their condition, but it usually is a last resort. The name, Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, may imply that the syndrome is a result of damaged ovaries. If you followed this line of thought, then it would seem to make sense that if a woman had a hysterectomy and her ovaries were removed, then the syndrome would go away. However, PCOS is much more than just a syndrome that affects the ovaries. A hysterectomy or an oophorectomy would not cure Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome because the cause of PCOS is related to hormone and metabolic issues that may not be helped by removing reproductive organs.

      Depending upon your medical history, a hysterectomy for PCOS may be too risky because of obesity, heart disease or diabetes. And, if the ovaries are removed, then one would experience instant menopause . It is important to weigh the possible benefits with the associated risks of a hysterectomy. Risks may include heavy blood loss, bowel injury, bladder injury, anesthesia problems (such as breathing or heart problems) and need to change an abdominal incision during surgery.

      Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is associated with a number of serious medical conditions. Women with PCOS who have absent or irregular periods are at increased risk for endometrial cancer . According to a 2006 study from the University of California there is increasing evidence that the glandular and metabolic abnormalities in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome may have complex effects on the endometrium, including endometrial dysfunction, infertility, increased miscarriage rate, endometrial hyperplasia (abnormal cell growth) and endometrial cancer. If left untreated, PCOS can lead to increased risk of endometrial cancer and removal of the ovaries and uterus . Hormonal treatments can lower this risk.

      You need to be proactive and take action now to improve your health and lessen your risk of serious medical conditions. It must be stressed that the solution is not to go out and get a hysterectomy to minimize your risk of endometrial cancer or lessen your PCOS symptoms. A better approach is to start re-balancing your hormones with diet, exercise, stress management and nutritional supplements.

      Hope this helps.

  7. QUESTION:
    What can I expect starting estrogen therapy?
    I'm 49, close to 50. Had my uterus removed 4wks ago. Just started taking low dose estrogen. I know it's suppose to help the hot flashes, but what else?

    • ANSWER:
      First of all, you can read this if you want to know:

      Estrogen, in pill, patch, or gel form, is the single most effective therapy for suppressing hot flashes.

      The term estrogen therapy, or ET, refers to estrogen administered alone. Because ET alone can cause uterine cancer (endometrial cancer), a progestin is administered together with estrogen in women who have a uterus to eliminate the increased risk. Thus, the term estrogen/progestin therapy, or EPT, refers to a combination of estrogen and progestin therapy, as is given to a woman who still has a uterus. This method of prescribing hormones is also known as combination hormone therapy.

      The term hormone therapy (HT) is a more general term that is used to refer to either administration of estrogen alone (women who have had a hysterectomy), or combined estrogen/progestin therapy (women with a uterus).

      All forms of hormone therapy (HT) that are FDA-approved for therapy of hot flashes are similarly effective in suppressing hot flashes.

      What are the side effects and risks of hormone therapy (HT)?

      Women can experience side effects during hormone therapy; these can be divided into more minor side effects, and more serious side effects. The more minor side effects are more common than the serious side effects, and are generally perceived by women as annoying.・These symptoms include:

      headaches,
      nausea,
      breast pain.
      It is still controversial which of these side effects are due to the estrogen component as compared to the progesterone component. Therefore, if side effects persist for a few months, the doctor will often alter either the progesterone or the estrogen part of the hormone therapy (HT).

      Contrary to common belief, recent research has confirmed that women who take commonly prescribed doses of hormone therapy (HT) are no more likely to gain weight than women not taking hormone therapy (HT). This is probably because menopause or aging itself is associated with weight gain, regardless of hormone therapy.

      (endometrial cancer): Research shows that women who have their uterus and use estrogen alone are at risk for endometrial cancer. Today, however, most doctors prescribe the combination of estrogen and progestin. Progestin protects against endometrial cancer. If there is a particular reason why a woman with a uterus cannot take some form of progesterone, her doctor will take sample tissue from her uterus (endometrial biopsy) to check for cancer annually while she is taking estrogen. Women without a uterus (including women who have had a hysterectomy) have no risk of endometrial cancer.

  8. QUESTION:
    Is a hysterectomy a good idea to get rid of Polycystic ovary syndrome?
    I have PCOS and was wondering if it is best idea to get a hysterectomy, but I am only sixteen.. and i kn ow that getting a hysterectomy will cause me not to hae children in the furture, but i dont want cancer.. so if you can please tell me what is the best thing to do... please

    • ANSWER:
      No. That would be getting rid of a minor problem by giving yourself a major problem instead. And neither your uterus nor ovaries are the real problem--what happens to them are symptoms of the real problem, which lies in your body's response to insulin. I am guessing that someone recently told you that having PCOS means you are at greater risk of endometrial cancer? That sounds scary, but really isn't--risk is not huge. If it were a huge risk, then they'd advise getting your uterus removed. Plus endometrial cancer is generally not all that dangerous and it is usually caught at an early stage. Just take care of yourself and follow the advice of Doc Julio.

  9. QUESTION:
    Does the intake of Tamoxifen for breast cancer affect our uterus ?
    I was suggested a hysterectomy after taking tamoxifen for a year.

    • ANSWER:
      Here's the data from the NCI
      http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/therapy/tamoxifen
      "Tamoxifen increases the risk of two types of cancer that can develop in the uterus: endometrial cancer, which arises in the lining of the uterus, and uterine sarcoma, which arises in the muscular wall of the uterus. Like all cancers, endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma are potentially life-threatening. Women who have had a hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus) and are taking tamoxifen are not at increased risk for these cancers.

      Endometrial Cancer
      Studies have found the risk of developing endometrial cancer to be about 2 cases per 1,000 women taking tamoxifen each year compared with 1 case per 1,000 women taking placebo. Most of the endometrial cancers that have occurred in women taking tamoxifen have been found in the early stages, and treatment has usually been effective. However, for some breast cancer patients who developed endometrial cancer while taking tamoxifen, the disease was life-threatening.

      Uterine Sarcoma
      Studies have found the risk of developing uterine sarcoma to be slightly higher in women taking tamoxifen compared with women taking placebo. However, it was less than 1 case per 1,000 women per year in both groups (1, 2). Research to date indicates that uterine sarcoma is more likely to be diagnosed at later stages than endometrial cancer, and may therefore be harder to control and more
      life-threatening than endometrial cancer.
      Abnormal vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal (pelvic) pain are symptoms of cancers of the uterus. Women who are taking tamoxifen should talk with their doctor about having regular pelvic examinations and should be checked promptly if they have any abnormal vaginal bleeding or pelvic pain between scheduled exams."

      So, the bottom line is that you may have a risk of ~ one in a thousand that you may develop a uterine malignancy related to the tamoxifen therapy. We would have to do a hysterectomies on 1000 women on Tamoxifen to prevent one uterine cancer. If you are the one in 1000 who would have developed a malignancy, it is worth it. For the other 999 women, it is an unnecessary trauma and expense. I wish we knew which ones needed this done.

  10. QUESTION:
    How long before HRT patch starts working?
    I've has just started Estraderm TTS 25mg patches, but can't seem to find it on leaflet or anywhere how long it will take before they start working, any ideas please? (Using my husbands login - Carole)

    • ANSWER:
      Patches are neither the most effective or efficient form of HRT as their absorption is very variable.I always described them as women's magazine medication more hype than substance.

      I very much hope that you are either being prescribed an oral sequential progestogen unless you have had a hysterectomy, as unopposed oestrogen CANNOT be used otherwise due to the risk of doubling ovarian cancer risk and also endometrial cancer.

      Assuming one or other of these is the case and your patch is 'safe', (ignoring the inherent risks of all HRT,) then your 25 patch is the lowest dose and is seldom sufficient to abolish symptoms.

  11. QUESTION:
    can uterine sarcoma occur without any vaginal bleeding in premenapausal women?
    I am a 47 premenopausal woman diagnosed with 5 fibroids (largest being 35*41) three years ago. I only experience occasional pelvic pain.

    • ANSWER:
      To look at your fibroids, I will quote from the Merk manual.

      "Uterine fibroids are benign uterine tumors of smooth muscle origin. Fibroids frequently cause abnormal vaginal bleeding (eg, menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia), pelvic pain and pressure, urinary and intestinal symptoms, and pregnancy complications. Diagnosis is by pelvic examination and imaging. Treatment of symptomatic patients depends on the patient's desire for fertility and desire to keep her uterus and may include oral contraceptives, brief presurgical gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy to shrink fibroids, and more definitive surgical procedures (eg, myomectomy, hysterectomy, endometrial ablation). "

      Then to look at what the Merk says on endometrial cancer.
      "Symptoms and Signs. Most (> 90%) women have abnormal uterine bleeding (eg, postmenopausal bleeding, premenopausal recurrent metrorrhagia); 1⁄3 of women with postmenopausal bleeding have endometrial cancer. A vaginal discharge may occur weeks or months before postmenopausal bleeding."

      So, I would say that there are approximately 10% of endometrial cancers that do not present with vaginal bleeding or discharge to begin with. I think you are needlessly worrying about something. Continue to have your fibroids checked, especially if you have any change in discharge or bleeding!

  12. QUESTION:
    I have been bleeding for about 45 days what can I do to stop the bleeding other than birth control pills?

    I've had my period for 45 days, and I've been to my school clinic twice and they just gave me birth control pills. When I told them I'm still bleeding after three weeks they told me to just keep taking the pills.
    Of course I've been to the doctor, I'm not stupid.

    • ANSWER:
      Firstly, you should have gone to the doctor by now, because this could be serious and he needs to diagnose you with something.
      Here is some information and please be sure to contact your doctor as soon as possible! Good luck!

      Common Causes:
      *cervical or endometrial polyps
      *lupus
      *pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
      *cervical cancer
      *endometrial cancer.

      Women using intrauterine devices (IUDs) for birth control, may also experience excessive or prolonged periods. If you experience menorrhagia while using an IUD, the IUD should be removed and replaced with an alternative birth control method.

      Usually detected soon after menstruation begins, platelet disorders are the most common blood disorder which causes excessive bleeding; the most common platelet disorder is von Willebrand's disease. Women with von Willebrand's disease commonly will experience not only heavy menstrual bleeding, but nosebleeds, easy bruising, and blood in the stool.

      A pelvic exam is the first step to determine the cause of menorrhagia, including a Pap smear and lab tests to check for any underlying causes, as well as a pregnancy test when appropriate. An ultrasound is often performed to check for any abnormalities, such as fibroids and an endometrial biopsy, D&C, or hysteroscopy may also be performed to further evaluate the condition of your uterus.
      Treatment of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

      Relief from abnormal uterine bleeding or menorrhagia is usually found by treating the either medical or physical (as in the case of an IUD) cause. Abnormal bleeding which does not appear to be related to another underlying disease or condition is often successfully treated with progesterone or a combination of progesterone with estrogen, many times given in the form of an oral contraceptive.

      Women who experience menorrhagia on a regular basis should be monitored closely for anemia and treatment with iron supplementation may be necessary.

      Often, severe bleeding is treated with non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen. These drugs sometimes help reduce bleeding, as well as menstrual cramps.

      Endometrial ablation, once commonly used to treat excessive bleeding in women past child bearing who wanted to avoid hysterectomy, has now been replaced by a new therapy called thermal balloon ablation. In most cases, thermal ballon ablation ends bleeding by destroying the lining of the uterus. Only women no longer desiring to bear children are treated in this manner because this treatment usually results in infertility. However, this procedure does not guarantee infertility and women who do not desire children should continue using their preferred birth control method.

      Unless you're pregnant when you experience abnormal uterine bleeding, a single episode of heavy menstrual bleeding usually does not require treatment. The exception to this, however, is when excessive uterine bleeding continues for over 24 hours women should contact their gynecologists.

      Contact your gynecologist any time you're unsure about any reproductive health symptom you experience.

  13. QUESTION:
    What will happen if I stop my HRT?
    I am 3 years post-hysterectomy and have been on Estrace since that time. I suspect it is causing me to gain weight, lose muscle tone and look older! I have noticed a big decline since the surgery, and lately have heart fluttering and palpitations occasionally. Yesterday I did not take the Estrace and had no palpitations all day. I want to stop taking it. Is it safe to do that?

    • ANSWER:
      HI there...hope this helps you out some...

      Why It Is Used...

      The estrogen in hormone therapy is used by some postmenopausal women to increase estrogen levels. This helps prevent osteoporosis and perimenopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes and sleep problems. Because HRT is known to cause breast cancer, blood clots, cardiovascular disease, or dementia in small numbers of women, the FDA recommends HRT only for:
      Short-term treatment of perimenopausal symptoms, at the lowest effective dose for as short a time as possible.2
      Osteoporosis prevention and treatment, in select cases. Most experts recommend that HRT only be considered for women with significant risk of osteoporosis that may outweigh their risks of taking HRT.3 Women are now encouraged to consider all possible osteoporosis treatments and to compare their risks and benefits.4 For more information, see the topic Osteoporosis.
      http://www.webmd.com/hw/menopause/hw228619.asp

      BELOW, I HAVE CLICKED ON THE "SHORT TERM" LINK FOR YOU. ;)

      Short-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT)...

      Short-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the use of an estrogen-progestin combination to treat symptoms related to menopause. It is used at the lowest dose possible and for the shortest time possible to reduce or eliminate hot flashes, sleep problems, mood problems, bone loss, and skin and vaginal changes.
      A woman who still has her uterus should take progestin if she is taking estrogen. This prevents the estrogen from causing endometrial (uterine) cancer. Progestin prevents the increased risk of this cancer by regulating the buildup and breakdown of the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Women know this buildup and breakdown as monthly menstrual bleeding.
      Because HRT causes breast cancer, heart attack, stroke, blood clots, or dementia in a small number of women, short-term use is recommended for women who choose this therapy. Experts have yet to firmly define how long "short-term" should be. While some recommend less than 1 year, most consider no more than 4 or 5 years to be reasonable, with regular checkups. Research is currently exploring whether low-dose, short-term HRT reduces HRT risks.
      http://www.webmd.com/hw/health_guide_atoz/tn9520.asp?navbar=hw228619

      What To Think About...

      If you have been taking HRT, talk with your health professional about your reasons for taking it. Are you taking it to help with perimenopausal symptoms or for long-term health reasons? Consider changing to another treatment, depending on the problem you are using HRT to treat. If HRT seems like the best choice for you, plan to use the lowest possible effective dose.
      If you are unable to tolerate the side effects of progestin in hormone replacement therapy and you have not had a hysterectomy, try nonhormonal treatment options.
      Most health professionals don't recommend it, but some women use estrogen-only therapy (ERT) if testing does not show abnormalities of the lining of the uterus (endometrium). However, having an annual pelvic exam along with an annual endometrial biopsy or transvaginal ultrasound is necessary to check for precancerous changes of the endometrium. The British Million Women Study has confirmed the Women's Health Initiative findings and has provided more information about estrogen, progestin, and breast and endometrial cancers.17 This is important information for women deciding whether to take estrogen without progestin, as described above.
      When given with a skin patch, estrogen-progestin enters the bloodstream directly, without passing through the liver. The estrogen and progestin in pills must be processed by the liver before entering the bloodstream. This is why women with liver or gallbladder disease can usually use a patch form of HRT.
      http://www.webmd.com/hw/menopause/hw228619.asp#hw228691

      HAVE A FANTASTIC NEW YEAR!!!!
      "S"

  14. QUESTION:
    If my mom has cancer, how advanced could it be by now?
    She's had abnormal vaginal bleeding for over 6 months, possibly even a year. She's just getting a biopsy done now after a transvaginal ultrasound revealed a polyp and an enlarged uterus/thickening of the endometrial lining. After almost a year of these symptoms, how advanced could the cancer be if that's what it is? She is 47 years old, pre menopause.

    • ANSWER:
      I had simillar symptoms prior to my hysterectomy at age 40.

      The whole of my uterus was biopsied after removal and there was no sign of cancer.

      Wait until you get a diagnosis before you worry about "what if's".

  15. QUESTION:
    what is entometriosis cancer?&can a complete hysterectomie really take in all away?
    i am waiting for my sugury date and am very scared,alot of things run threw my mind, like once they remove this will the cancer be gone?&like how will this affect me as a woman?with ur hormones and stuff?will a sex life still extist?

    • ANSWER:
      Endometrial cancer is cancer of the lining of the uterus. According to Medline, it is the most common type of uterine cancer. Although the exact cause of endometrial cancer is unknown, increased levels of estrogen appear to have a role. One of estrogen's normal functions is to stimulate the buildup of the epithelial lining of the uterus. Excess estrogen administered to laboratory animals produces endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. It is also associated with obesity, hypertension and polycystic ovarian disease. Tamoxifen, used to treat breast cancer, may also increase the risk of developing endometrial cancer.

      Endometrial cancer should not be confused the disease Endometriosis, or with the malignant shifts that can and do occur (albeit rarely) in women with Endometriosis.

      Symptoms include abnormal uterine bleeding, abnormal menstrual periods, bleeding between normal periods in premenopausal women, vaginal bleeding or spotting in postmenopausal women, extremely long, heavy, or frequent episodes of bleeding in women over 40, lower abdominal pain or pelvic cramping, and thin white or clear vaginal discharge in postmenopausal women.

      Treatment varies based on the stage. For example, women with the early stage 1 disease may be candidates for treatment with surgical hysterectomy, but removal of the tubes and ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) is also usually recommended for 2 reasons, 1.) tumor cells can spread to the ovaries very early in the disease and 2.) any dormant cancer cells that may be present could possibly be stimulated by estrogen production by the ovaries. Abdominal hysterectomy is recommended over vaginal hysterectomy, because it affords the opportunity to examine and obtain washings of the abdominal cavity to detect any further evidence of cancer.

      Women with stage 1 disease who are at increased risk for recurrence, and those with stage 2 disease are often offered surgery in combination with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy may be considered in some cases, especially for those with stage 3 and 4 disease.

      The 5-year survival rate for endometrial cancer following appropriate treatment is:

      75 - 95% for stage 1
      50% for stage 2
      30% for stage 3
      Less than 5% for stage 4

      You can find others who understand at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002166.htm.

      Good luck to you.

  16. QUESTION:
    Has any one had a hysterectomy in their early 30's due to painful menstrual cycle?
    I am a 30 year old mom with three kids and my tubes are tied. I have very painful heavy menstrual cycle every month. My doctor has talked to me about gettting a hysterectomy and because my insurance will pay for it, I could get a tummy tuck and just pay for the physician fee for the tummy tuck and the hospital stay will be covered under my insurance for my hysterectomy. So I guess its like two in one. Is it worth it? It sounds good to only pay for the physician fee for the tummy tuck and not all the anesthetic and hospital stay. All the rest the insurance will cover it, but I am scared of the side effects of a hysterectomy. I hear all kinds of horror stories, like deep depression, growing facial hair stuff like that. Any advice?
    oh wow....I didn't know it was fraud. I figure he knew what he was talking about.

    • ANSWER:
      My mother in law had a hysterectomy done at around your age because of painful menstrual cycles, she was always in pain..
      After the hyst she felt alot better, her pain was gone and she was much happier..
      She does have facial hair but not because of the hysterectomy but because she has polycistic ovarian disorder, and it is also common to gain alot of weight after the hyst...

      If you have cancer, a hysterectomy might be the only option. But if you have uterine fibroids, endometriosis or uterine prolapse, there are other treatments you can try first.

      Drug therapy. Certain medications may lighten heavy uterine bleeding or correct uterine bleeding that is not regular. Certain medications can help with endometriosis.

      Endometrial ablation. If you have heavy or irregular uterine bleeding, this procedure might ease your symptoms. With a special device, a doctor uses electricity, heat, or cold to destroy the lining of your uterus and stop uterine bleeding.
      Uterine artery embolization. For treating fibroid, this procedure involves blocking the blood supply to the tumors. Without blood, the fibroids shrink over time, which can reduce pain and heavy bleeding.

      Myomectomy. If you have fibroid tumors, this surgical procedure removes the tumors while leaving your uterus intact. There's a risk that the tumors could come back.

      Vaginal pessary. This is an object inserted into the vagina to hold the womb in place. It may be used as a temporary or permanent form of treatment. Vaginal pessaries come in many shapes and sizes, and they must be fitted for each woman individually.

      Talk to your doctor about nonsurgical treatments to try first. Doing so is really important if the recommendation for a hysterectomy is for a reason other than cancer.

      So talk to your doctor if you still feel that having a hysterectomy done would be a better choice then go ahead, it's all up to you hun...
      Hope i helped
      Good luck!

  17. QUESTION:
    Can soya milk really cause cancer?
    The NHS have recently released new information saying that some of teh ingredients in soya milk could cause cancer, is this correct? i give it to my 1 year old daughter as she's allergic to cows milk.

    • ANSWER:
      Soya products and cooked soybeans are safe at a wide range of intakes. However, a small percentage of people have allergies to soybeans and thus should avoid soya products.

      Soya isoflavones have been reported to reduce thyroid function in some people.17 A preliminary trial of soya supplementation among healthy Japanese, found that 30 grams (about one ounce) per day of soybeans for three months, led to a slight reduction in the hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland.18 Some participants complained of malaise, constipation, sleepiness, and even goitre. These symptoms resolved within a month of discontinuing soya supplements. However, a variety of soya products have been shown to either cause an increase in thyroid function19 or produce no change in thyroid function.20 The clinical importance of interactions between soya and thyroid function remains unclear. However, in infants with congenital hypothyroidism, soya formula must not be added, nor removed from the diet, without consultation with a physician, because ingestion of soya may interfere with the absorption of thyroid medication.21

      Most research, including animal studies, report anticancer effects of soya extracts,22 though occasional animal studies have reported cancer-enhancing effects.23 The findings of several recent studies suggest that consuming soya might, under some circumstances, increase the risk of breast cancer. When ovaries have been removed from animals—a situation related to the condition of women who have had a total hysterectomy—dietary genistein has been reported to increase the proliferation of breast cancer cells.24 When pregnant rats were given genistein injections, their female offspring were reported to be at greater risk of breast cancer.25 Although premenopausal women have shown decreases in oestrogen levels in response to soya,26 27 pro-oestrogenic effects have also been reported.28 When pre-menopausal women were given soya isoflavones, an increase in breast secretions resulted—an effect thought to elevate the risk of breast cancer.29 In yet another trial, healthy breast cells from women previously given soya supplements containing isoflavones showed an increase in proliferation rates—an effect that might also increase the risk of breast cancer.30

      Of 154 healthy postmenopausal women who received 150 mg of soya isoflavones per day for five years, 3.9% developed an abnormal proliferation of the tissue that lines the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia). In contrast, none of 144 women who received a placebo developed uterine hyperplasia.31 Although no case of uterine cancer was diagnosed during the study, endometrial hyperplasia is a potential forerunner of uterine cancer. The amount of isoflavones used in this study is two to three times as much as that used in many other studies. Nevertheless, the possibility exists that long-term use of isoflavones could cause uterine hyperplasia, and women taking isoflavones should be monitored appropriately by their doctor.

      Soya contains a compound called phytic acid, which can interfere with mineral absorption

  18. QUESTION:
    Tomoxifen is some kind of medicine. Someone please tell me how much of tomoxifen would cause uterine cancer?
    I need an answer a.s.a.p please anyone thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      Tamoxifen has been shown to increase the risk of endometrial cancer in post-menopausal women who still have a uterus (who have not had a hysterectomy). The lining of the uterus is called the "endometrium." Tamoxifen stimulates the growth of endometrial cells. Over time, the risk of cancer cells developing in this lining is higher for women on tamoxifen.

      If you have had breast cancer, you have an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Tamoxifen makes the risk of endometrial cancer a bit higher. The longer you take tamoxifen, the higher your risk of developing a tamoxifen-related endometrial cancer. (But the risk is still low, less than 1%, even if you take tamoxifen for 10 years.) If you are diagnosed with endometrial cancer within the first two years of taking tamoxifen, the cancer was most likely there before you started taking the drug.

      Post-menopausal women who take tamoxifen and who have not had a hysterectomy (uterus removal) are at a higher risk of developing endometrial cancer than women who are not on tamoxifen. In the NSABP’s Breast Cancer Prevention Trial, endometrial cancer occurred 2.5 times more frequently in women who took tamoxifen compared to women who took a placebo (inactive pill).

      However, the risk of endometrial cancer is still low among women on tamoxifen: approximately 2 out of 1000 women on tamoxifen will develop endometrial cancer.

      Research suggests that long-term use of tamoxifen among post-menopausal women increases the chances of endometrial problems. According to a review of 106 studies that was published in the journal, Gynecologic Oncology, women who use tamoxifen on a long-term basis are more likely to develop endometrial cancer and endometrial sarcomas than women who have not used tamoxifen. However, the NSABP studies reviewing the incidence of endometrial cancer and tamoxifen use found that earlier, highly treatable endometrial cancers were detected in women on tamoxifen. While women who are diagnosed with early-stage endometrial cancer generally have good prognoses (expected outcomes), the prognosis for advanced endometrial cancer can be far worse.

      Because of these findings, women on tamoxifen are encouraged to have yearly gynecological exams. Any abnormal bleeding or uterine pain should be reported to a physician immediately. Women considering tamoxifen are encouraged to have an endometrial sampling (removal of cells in the lining of the uterus for microscopic examination) to make sure there are no pre-existing uterine problems. Researchers are investigating whether women on tamoxifen should receive annual vaginal ultrasound exams to screen for endometrial thickening. However, early studies do not indicate a need for routine ultrasounds and/or endometrial biopsies unless there are specific symptoms such as vaginal bleeding or spotting.

  19. QUESTION:
    What are top causes of heavy menstruation?

    • ANSWER:
      A hormonal imbalance during adolescence or menopause is the most common cause of heavy menstrual bleeding. During adolescence after girls have their first periods, and for several years before the onset of menopause when menstruation ceases, our hormones levels are fluctuating which often leads to excessive uterine bleeding during our periods. It’s often possible to treat menorrhagia caused by hormonal imbalances with birth control pills or other hormones

      Uterine fibroid tumors are another very common cause of excessive menstruation. It’s important to understand that fibroid tumors are usually benign (non-cancerous) tumors that often occur in the uterus of women during their thirties or forties. While the cause of uterine fibroid tumors is unclear, it is clear that they are estrogen-dependent. Several surgical treatments are available for treating fibroid tumors of the uterus including myomectomy, endometrial ablation, uterine artery embalization, and uterine balloon therapy, as well as hysterectomy. Non-surgical pharmacological treatments for fibroid tumors include GnRH agonists, oral contraceptives, androgens, RU486 (the abortion pill), and gestrinone. Some women find natural progesterone to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroid tumors. Often, when symptoms are not severe or troublesome, a “wait and see” approach is taken. Once menopause occurs, uterine fibroid tumors typically shrink and disappear without treatment.

      Cervical polyps are small, fragile growths that begin in either the mucosal surface of the cervix, or the endocervical canal and protrude through the opening of the cervix. The cause of cervical polyps is not clear; however, they are often the result of an infection and many times associated with an abnormal response to increased estrogen levels or congestion of the blood vessels located in the cervix. Women most commonly affected by cervical polyps are those over the age of twenty who have had children. A simple out patient office procedure that removes the growth, along with antibiotics, is the usual treatment for cervical polyps.

      Endometrial polyps are typically non-cancerous, growths that protrude from the lining of the uterus. The cause of endometrial polyps is unclear, although they are often associated with an excess of estrogen following hormone treatment or some types of ovarian tumors. Treatments for endometrial polyps include hysteroscopy and D&C. A pathology lab will evaluate endometrial polyps for cancer following removal.

  20. QUESTION:
    Is having a heavy period a problem?
    Every month I have heavy periods I was wondering if that was a problem for the future if I wanted to have babies.. It's so heavy I always have to stain myself because it's just so much when I go to sleep I use a clean pad but by the time I wake up its full. I just think its too much is there something wrong with me will I not be able to have babies?

    • ANSWER:
      Let’s take a look at the most common causes of menorrhagia or heavy menstrual bleeding:

      A hormonal imbalance during adolescence or menopause is the most common cause of heavy menstrual bleeding. During adolescence after girls have their first periods, and for several years before the onset of menopause when menstruation ceases, our hormones levels are fluctuating which often leads to excessive uterine bleeding during our periods. It’s often possible to treat menorrhagia caused by hormonal imbalances with birth control pills or other hormones.

      Uterine fibroid tumors are another very common cause of excessive menstruation. It’s important to understand that fibroid tumors are usually benign (non-cancerous) tumors that often occur in the uterus of women during their thirties or forties. While the cause of uterine fibroid tumors is unclear, it is clear that they are estrogen-dependent. Several surgical treatments are available for treating fibroid tumors of the uterus including myomectomy, endometrial ablation, uterine artery embalization, and uterine balloon therapy, as well as hysterectomy. Non-surgical pharmacological treatments for fibroid tumors include GnRH agonists, oral contraceptives, androgens, RU486 (the abortion pill), and gestrinone. Some women find natural progesterone to be an effective treatment for uterine fibroid tumors. Often, when symptoms are not severe or troublesome, a “wait and see” approach is taken. Once menopause occurs, uterine fibroid tumors typically shrink and disappear without treatment.

      Cervical polyps are small, fragile growths that begin in either the mucosal surface of the cervix, or the endocervical canal and protrude through the opening of the cervix. The cause of cervical polyps is not clear; however, they are often the result of an infection and many times associated with an abnormal response to increased estrogen levels or congestion of the blood vessels located in the cervix. Women most commonly affected by cervical polyps are those over the age of twenty who have had children. A simple out patient office procedure that removes the growth, along with antibiotics, is the usual treatment for cervical polyps.

      Endometrial polyps are typically non-cancerous, growths that protrude from the lining of the uterus. The cause of endometrial polyps is unclear, although they are often associated with an excess of estrogen following hormone treatment or some types of ovarian tumors. Treatments for endometrial polyps include hysteroscopy and D&C. A pathology lab will evaluate endometrial polyps for cancer following removal.

      •Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of one or more organs that affects the uterus, fallopian tubes, and cervix. PID is, most often, a sexually transmitted disease; however, it sometimes occurs following childbirth, abortion, or other gynecological procedures. The recommended treatment for pelvic inflammatory disease is antibiotic therapy.

      •Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs when cells in the cervix become abnormal, multiply out of control, and damage healthy parts of the body. The human papillomavirus, or HPV, is the cause of over ninety percent of all cervical cancers. Treatments for cervical cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

      •Endometrial cancer occurs when abnormal cells in the uterus or the endometrium (the lining of the uterus) multiply out of control and damage to the uterus and other organs. While the cause of endometrial cancer is unknown, it is known that women diagnosed with this type of cancer tend are usually over fifty, often have endometrial hyperplasia, or many times use hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The first treatment for endometrial cancer is usually a hysterectomy, possibly followed by chemotherapy and/or radiation treatments.

      •IUDs or intrauterine devices used for contraception are a potential cause of heavy menstrual bleeding or menorrhagia. Women who experience prolonged or heavy periods while using the IUD should have the device removed and choose an alternate method of birth control.

      •Bleeding disorders occur when it is hard for a person to stop bleeding. While there are several types of bleeding disorders, the most common type in women is von Willebrand Disease or VWD. Treatments for von Willebrand Disease involve the release of stored clotting factors in the blood, or in extreme cases the replacement of the clotting factor with IV treatment or with prescribed nasal spray.

  21. QUESTION:
    Help! I have been diagnosed with uterine fibroids and hyperplasia. Is there any hope?

    I am 41, no kids, just got engaged and wanted to start my family. I just don't want to have a hysterectomy yet. But, I don't want to risk cancer either.

    • ANSWER:
      You have not given age and treatment so for taken.
      It is benign disease& curable.Just read.-
      It shouldn't be a surprise that many women with uterine fibroids at some point end up with hyperplasia if their fibroids and resulting symptoms are left untreated. Hormonal imbalances that incite fibroid growth seem to incite fast multiplication of cell growth of the endometrial lining as well. If hyperplasia and uterine fibroids are both part of your diagnosis and abnormal bleeding is a major symptom, treating the hyperplasia first with progesterone may well bring the bleeding under control; thus, allowing you to postpone treatment for your uterine fibroids until they become symptomatic enough on their own to warrant action.
      Hyperplasia is the result of hormonal imbalances (just like fibroids!) and women who are diagnosed with hyperplasia all lack appropriate progesterone levels. The first line of defense for hyperplasia is progesterone pills as this is an easy way to increase a woman's progesterone levels and prevent the hyperplasia from progressing. If this treatment along with a D&C doesn't work to stop hyperplasia from developing into endometrial cancer, it would then be appropriate to turn to hysterectomy.

  22. QUESTION:
    does anyone have or had endometrial cancer ?
    i was just wondering if anyone out there has had or has endometrial cancer ? and what are all the symptoms u have or had with it before finding out that u did .? and how old u r or were with it ? i thank you so much for your answers .
    i am 30 y/o i have been having pains in my lower back and sometimes it goes up my back , into my lower belly and my legs , now its starting to be in my pelvic area and into the vag. canal its sometimes burning pains and a sharp stabbing pains . i can also feel pain in my arms too. i went to the e.r in oct for real bad pains they said i had a tumor the size of a orange in mu uterus . but when i went to my gyn the nurse told me its located in my endometrial wall and that my doc wants me to have a hysterectomy . well my insurance is trying to deny me cause they think its pre-exsicting . and its not . i just found out . anyways thats the reason why im asking about the endometrial cancer symptoms . if u care to i.m please do or email too . thank you all for your response ...

    • ANSWER:
      I was 21, I had severe menstrual cramping, excessive bleeding, numerous periods within a month. pretty much the same symptoms with endometreosis. I had endometreosis when I was 15 and had numerous surgeries, it wasn't until I delivered my daughter that they discovered the endometrial cancer via c-section. Had hysterectomy and still have problems 10 years later because of all the scarring.

  23. QUESTION:
    Is anyone on Tamoxifen having side effects and what are you doing about them?

    • ANSWER:
      The following side effects are associated with Tamoxifen Oral:

      Infrequent side effects:
      Discharge from the Vagina Less Severe
      Irregular Periods Less Severe
      "Change of Life" Signs Less Severe
      Genital Itching Less Severe
      Dry Skin Less Severe
      Rash Less Severe
      Weight Gain Less Severe
      Head Pain Less Severe
      Feel Like Throwing Up Less Severe
      Throwing Up Less Severe

      Rare side effects:
      Disease of the Retina of the Eye Severe
      Cataracts Severe
      Disease of the Cornea of the Eye Severe
      Sudden Blindness and Pain Upon Moving the Eye Severe
      Blood Clot in Lung Severe
      Blood Clot Severe
      Hepatitis caused by Drugs Severe
      Polyps of the Lining of the Uterus or the Endometrium Severe
      Overgrowth of the Uterine Lining Severe
      Drowsiness Severe
      Feeling Weak Severe
      Cancer in the Lining of the Uterus Severe
      Confused Severe

      Side Effects

      Tamoxifen's unwanted side effects depend on whether you have any personal history of blood clots or endometrial cancer, your susceptibility to hot flashes associated with menopause, and the ups and downs of depression. Add to these the cost of the medication, the fact that some women have real trouble sticking to the routine of taking a daily dose of pills, and many women's philosophical objection to taking any regular medication except perhaps for vitamins.

      Although most side effects are not life threatening, the lesser side effects may diminish your quality of life, sometimes to a considerable degree.

      Blood Clots

      One potentially serious side effect of tamoxifen is blood clots, also known as thrombosis. The most common place for a clot to form is in the leg veins. These clots are dangerous because they can break loose, travel to the lung, and clog a vital blood vessel; this is called a pulmonary embolism. If you have had any history of blood clots, tamoxifen will probably not be an option for you. The possibility of pulmonary embolism is less than 1%, meaning that it's likely to affect less than one woman in a hundred taking tamoxifen. Tamoxifen can also cause inflammation of a blood vessel. Call your doctor if you notice any new swelling, redness, discomfort, or warmth in your legs.

      Endometrial Cancer and Other Uterine Effects

      Another serious risk associated with tamoxifen treatment is cancer of the lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer) in a woman beyond menopause who still has her uterus. Regardless of tamoxifen use, women affected by breast cancer are at increased risk of developing endometrial cancer; tamoxifen, however, does make this slightly higher risk a little higher still. Here, the risk is two women in a thousand, and there are usually -- but not always -- clear early warning signs of trouble. The longer a woman takes tamoxifen, the higher her risk of developing a tamoxifen-induced endometrial cancer. (But the risk is still low, even for women taking tamoxifen for 10 years.) If an endometrial cancer is diagnosed within the first two years of taking tamoxifen, the cancer was most likely there before treatment with the drug began.

      Endometrial cancer -- related or unrelated to tamoxifen use -- can usually be detected in the early stages, and it is usually curable with surgery. Unexpected vaginal bleeding is usually the first sign of trouble, and should be reported to your doctor immediately. You should also have a gynecologic exam every six months. The routine Pap smear, however, is not adequate for detecting endometrial cancer, because it assesses only the health of the cervix (the mouth of the uterus). Ultrasound testing or a uterine tissue sample obtained by biopsy are the most effective ways of evaluating the endometrium, but experts claim no benefit to routine endometrial ultrasounds and biopsies unless you have symptoms. Discuss this issue with your doctor.

      If you have had a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) because of endometrial cancer, tamoxifen may be contraindicated for your treatment of breast cancer. If, however, you have had a hysterectomy for a benign cause, such as fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia (an overgrowth of normal endometrial cells), or endometrial polyps (finger-like projections made up of normal cells), you don't have to worry about endometrial cancer. Or if you are still menstruating, shedding your endometrial lining every month, then you are not at risk for endometrial cancer.

      Tamoxifen can stimulate the benign changes in the endometrium mentioned previously, and it can also exacerbate underlying endometriosis, in which normal endometrial cells grow outside the uterus in the belly cavity, on the ovaries, or on the bladder.

      Tamoxifen can also affect the uterus wall, which can lead to uneven thickening of the muscle and supportive tissues within the wall. Fibroids, ball-like overgrowths of these tissues, can result, or there can be lumpy bumpiness in one area or throughout the uterine wall. These changes can confuse ultrasound assessment of the endometrium. The ultrasound study can show a thickened or uneven endometrium, when in reality the change is in the underlying uterine wall. No increase in uterine wall cancers has been observed in women taking tamoxifen.

      The benefits of tamoxifen as a breast cancer preventive still outweigh the risk of its contributing to development of an endometrial cancer.

      Hot Flashes

      Tamoxifen can produce menopausal side effects that include vaginal dryness, mood changes, and hot flashes. These sudden flushes can make you miserable and undermine your quality of life, but they do not endanger your life. Most women find hot flashes the worst side effect from tamoxifen. About half the women on tamoxifen are affected by them. Leslie: "I'll be sitting at a meeting, flushed and perspiring. It's damned embarrassing, as well as uncomfortable. Almost as bad is waking up in the middle of the night with those sweats."

      You may find that a regular course of exercise helps moderate the problem. Some women adjust to the hot flashes from tamoxifen; others grow to tolerate the problem, expecting it to diminish over time, and over a number of months it usually eases somewhat. One tip is to figure out how long it takes between taking the dose and the appearance of the hot flash. Then determine what time of day is the least inconvenient for you to have a hot flash, and time your medication to suit your schedule. Most of my patients choose to take their full 20 mg dose at night before going to bed.

      If you're experiencing severe hot flashes despite reasonable solutions, and tamoxifen therapy is strongly indicated, talk with your doctor about two possibilities suggested by Dr. John Eden at the 1996 American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting:

      (1) start with 5 milligrams of tamoxifen and slowly increase the dose up to 20 milligrams daily, or

      (2) try a short-term course of low-dose hormone therapy to ease the transition period. The course should last no more than a few months because the estrogens in hormone therapy are not known to be safe for women with breast cancer.
      Premature Menopause and Fertility Issues

      The menopausal symptoms brought on by tamoxifen tend to be more intense in premenopausal women than in older women. Tina, 35, stayed on tamoxifen for two years, but the hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms, the fear of side effects, and the stress of feeling so out of step with normal women her age finally were too much for her. "I gave it up. I want to try some alternatives, be a little kinder to my body, and enjoy my 30-something age a while longer." Tamoxifen alone does not produce permanent premature menopause. (If you were menstruating regularly before tamoxifen, and tamoxifen stopped or disrupted your menstrual cycles, then your cycles will probably return to your pre-treatment pattern when you discontinue the medication.) But the closer you are in age to menopause, the more likely you are to slide into menopause a little sooner if you are taking tamoxifen.

      If you are on tamoxifen and are premenopausal, you may still be fertile. If you do not want to get pregnant, you must use a barrier form of birth control. Oral contraceptives contain estrogens, which, as I have noted, are not known to be safe for women who have had breast cancer. (One of my patients on tamoxifen was asked what birth control method she was using. "Possum." "Possum? What's that?" "As soon as I hear him coming up the stairs, I play dead.")

      It's also important to stick to your daily dose schedule of tamoxifen; if tamoxifen is taken intermittently, it can actually stimulate the ovaries like a fertility drug. If you want to get pregnant, stop the tamoxifen before you start trying, because the drug should not be taken during any stage of pregnancy. However, if you do get pregnant while on tamoxifen and you want to keep the pregnancy, stop the tamoxifen and don't drive yourself crazy worrying about the effect that a month or so of tamoxifen might have had on the baby. There are no reported birth defects in people attributable to tamoxifen (just in an occasional laboratory rat).

      Vaginal Changes

      You may have noticed a watery or malodorous discharge, or dryness, irregular periods, or thinning of the vaginal wall while on tamoxifen. As many women note an increase in vaginal discharge (an estrogen-like effect) as report dryness (an anti-estrogen effect). Infrequently, intercourse may become painful, which can diminish your sexual activity or bring it to a halt. Discuss any changes with your physician. Again, any new pattern of vaginal bleeding requires immediate medical attention to rule out cancerous change of the endometrium.

      Nausea and Vomiting

      Reported by about 10% of the women on tamoxifen, this problem generally resolves itself in a couple of weeks. It's uncommon to have it last more than a few months. This can be another unpleasant experience, even if it poses no danger.

      Weight Gain

      Chemotherapy, and the steroids that are given with it, cause weight gain in many women, and that weight gain may be perpetuated by tamoxifen. Like many women, you may be certain that tamoxifen makes you gain weight and makes it nearly impossible to lose weight (as long as you are on it). One woman after another tells me about this unending battle with weight gain. "I put on 25 pounds, and it's real hard to get it off. It's been three years and I'm still trying!" It's not known why this weight gain occurs. Perhaps tamoxifen affects your metabolism and the way you process calories.

      Loss of Energy

      You may experience loss of energy with tamoxifen in the same way that you may experience loss of energy with menopause. In both situations, there is less estrogen, estrogen that seems to provide the "go-go juice" of energy for some women. Betsy, on tamoxifen for just a few months, said she had to talk herself into getting up off the sofa and out of the house to walk the short block to the beach. "The only other time I felt like such a cow was when I went on birth control pills. I'm determined to move myself around. I've always been someone who gets things done, and I'm not giving up on that image. If I can't shake this lethargy, I may stop taking tamoxifen." (Eventually Betsy did stop taking tamoxifen and got back her zip.)

      Actually, a whole list of things other than tamoxifen can steal your energy away: lack of exercise, weight gain, pain, hot flashes, fear, uncertainty, anxiety, depression---are all examples.

      Some content was adapted from the book Living Beyond Breast Cancer by Marisa C. Weiss, MD, and Ellen Weiss

  24. QUESTION:
    PreMenopausal Endometrial Cancer-Your Symptoms?
    I am 38 years old, 4 kids(including 2 yr old twins) and I've been experiencing some symptoms of endometrial cancer that could also be something else entirely, or nothing. I'm not interested in opinions about whether what I'm experiencing is cancer(which is why I'm not posting my symptoms) or statements like, "I should see my doctor." I know this. Just YOUR stories of how your symptoms presented, when, how old, how many children you have, if any, etc. to help me determine how concerned I should be. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      My symptoms were spotting, almost constantly, between periods, heavy (flooding) menstrual cycles, & cramps. Had these symptoms for years & blew it off. In my early 40's, no kids. Went to the gynecologist. Pap smear came back with endometrial cells. She did a biopsy and it came back as "atypical complex hyperplasia" which means that the cells are not looking normal and are heading towards cancer. Had a D&C the next day which revealed endometrial cancer. Scheduled a hysterectomy the next month. 2 oncologists said I had no risk factors for this type of cancer. It is relatively easy to diagnose with a biopsy in the office. I kind of knew something was wrong....
      Hope this helps, and I hope you do NOT have cancer. I don't know what your symptoms are, but the same symptoms that I had could have meant a bunch of different things, like fibroids or polyps which are benign.

  25. QUESTION:
    Ladies!Please tell Can Heavy Periods control your life Or can you control them?

    • ANSWER:
      A common, treatable problem
      If you have heavy periods, you're not alone. Heavy periods or menorraghia (pronounced men-or-ah-jah) affects 1 in 5 women of reproductive age, causing excessive menstruation that regularly interferes with daily activities.
      You may be hesitant to discuss your symptoms with a doctor. What you may not realize, however, is that treatment can bring relief.
      Next: What are Heavy Periods?

      Causes of Heavy Periods
      Several medical conditions may cause or contribute to heavy periods. It's also possible to experience heavy periods with no known cause.

      Hormonal imbalance: An imbalance of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Hormonal imbalance can also be signs of early menopause (also known as perimenopause), which can lead to irregular or heavy periods.

      Fibroids: Benign (noncancerous) growths in the smooth muscle tissue of the walls of the uterus, or womb. They can be as small as a pea or grow larger than a grapefruit. Pressure from fibroids may build with each menstrual cycle and cause heavy periods. Learn more about fibroids.

      Medication: Some drugs, such as anticoagulants (drugs that prevent the clotting of blood) or anti-inflammatory medications, can cause heavy or prolonged periods.

      Infection or Disease: Heavy periods can also be a sign of more serious conditions like certain types of cancer or infections in the uterus.

      Treatments for Heavy Periods
      Medical experts often treat heavy periods with less invasive methods first, such as birth control pills or global endometrial ablation (GEA), and reserve hysterectomy for specific circumstances.

      Birth control pillsBirth control pills can help reduce menstrual flow by up to 60%, but it may not be the best option for all women.

      For some women, birth control pills are simply ineffective in reducing heavy periods. For others, the potential side effects of weight gain, mood swings and breast tenderness may be too undesirable.

      Global endometrial ablation (GEA)If birth control pills have not been a successful treatment for you, GEA may offer an effective, nonhormonal option.

      During an endometrial ablation procedure, your doctor inserts a catheter into the uterus (womb) to treat the endometrium, the lining of the uterus. Over the next week or so after treatment, the uterine lining sheds, much like it would during menstruation, resulting in lighter periods.

      Ablation treatments may be performed in a doctor’s office or in a hospital. Learn more about GEA.

      HysterectomyIf birth control pills or endometrial ablation have not been effective or are not advised for you, your doctor may recommend a hysterectomy. In fact, about 30-35% of hysterectomies are performed annually to treat heavy periods.

      Before you commit to having a hysterectomy, however, you should know that it is a major surgery. Explore your hysterectomy options, To learn about less invasive treatments with shorter recovery times.

      You don’t have to live with heavy periods, and you do have options. Find a doctor who can help.

  26. QUESTION:
    i've heard there is a link between endometriosis and fibromyalgia, would having a hysterectomy help relieve?
    both of these? I know it would help the endometriosis but if fibromyalgia is brought on by endometriosis would having a hysterectomy help?

    http://www.fibromyalgia-symptoms.org/fibromyalgia_endometriosis.html

    • ANSWER:
      the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia is still very vague and uncertain - There is no established physopathological cause; it is not a single gene disorder, and it currently has us grasping at straws. What medical treatment they do use for Fibromyalgia are were not logically designed (nor were they designed specifically for fibromyalgia) - they were drugs for other "connective-tissue"/autoimmue/inflammatory disorders that were used off-label until we found out what class of drugs is most helpful (drugs similar to those used in Rheumatoid Arthritis, another pretty mysterious musculoskeletal disease).

      With all the uncertainty behind the cause of fibromyalgia, let alone the very weak connection to endometriosis, I would highly suggest you NOT entertain a hysterectomy, which should only be done in very very serious cases, such as those with extremely high risks of uterine cancer.

      We do know the pathogenesis of endometriosis (that is, endometrial tissue outside of the uterus; most commonly in the ovary - causing painful bleeding and blood-filled "chocolate" cyst formation) - knowing this, I find it highly unlikely there is a direct causation of fibromyalgia relative to endometriosis. Remember, correlation does NOT equal causation in any case, and almost certainly not in this one.

  27. QUESTION:
    I'm taking an estrogen patch and I need to know if you can overdose on estrogen?

    • ANSWER:
      Estrogen increases the risk that you will develop endometrial cancer (cancer of the lining of the uterus [womb]). The longer you take estrogen, the greater the risk that you will develop endometrial cancer. If you have not had a hysterectomy (surgery to remove the uterus), you should be given another medication called a progestin to take with estrogen. This may decrease your risk of developing endometrial cancer, but may increase your risk of developing certain other health problems, including breast cancer. Before you begin taking estrogen, tell your doctor if you have or have ever had cancer and if you have unusual vaginal bleeding. Call your doctor immediately if you have abnormal or unusual vaginal bleeding during your treatment with estrogen. Your doctor will watch you closely to help ensure you do not develop endometrial cancer during or after your treatment. In a large study, women who took estrogen with progestins had a higher risk of heart attacks, strokes, blood clots in the lungs or legs, breast cancer, and dementia (loss of ability to think, learn, and understand). Women who take estrogen alone may also have a higher risk of developing these conditions. Tell your doctor if you smoke or use tobacco, if you have had a heart attack or a stroke in the past year, and if you or anyone in your family has or has ever had blood clots or breast cancer. Also tell your doctor if you have or have ever had high blood pressure, high blood levels of cholesterol or fats, diabetes, heart disease, lupus (a condition in which the body attacks its own tissues causing damage and swelling), breast lumps, or an abnormal mammogram (x-ray of the breast used to find breast cancer).The following symptoms can be signs of the serious health conditions listed above. Call your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following symptoms while you are taking estrogen: sudden, severe headache; sudden, severe vomiting; speech problems; dizziness or faintness; sudden complete or partial loss of vision;double vision; weakness or numbness of an arm or a leg; crushing chest pain or chest heaviness; coughing up blood; sudden shortness of breath; difficulty thinking clearly, remembering, or learning new things; breast lumps or other breast changes; discharge from nipples; or pain, tenderness, or redness in one leg.You can take steps to decrease the risk that you will develop a serious health problem while you are taking estrogen. Do not take estrogen alone or with a progestin to prevent heart disease, heart attacks, strokes, or dementia. Take the lowest dose of estrogen that controls your symptoms and only take estrogen as long as needed. Talk to your doctor every 3-6 months to decide if you should take a lower dose of estrogen or should stop taking the medication.You should examine your breasts every month and have a mammogram and a breast exam performed by a doctor every year to help detect breast cancer as early as possible. Your doctor will tell you how to properly examine your breasts and whether you should have these exams more often than once a year because of your personal or family medical history.Tell your doctor if you are having surgery or will be on bed rest. Your doctor may tell you to stop taking estrogen 4-6 weeks before the surgery or bed rest to decrease the risk that you will develop blood clots.Talk to your doctor regularly about the risks and benefits of taking estrogen.

  28. QUESTION:
    Endometrial Cancer?
    My friend was recently diagnosed with endometrial cancer. Her doctor says its in stage 1 and slow growing, and therefore not a big threat. She however, had to schedule a hysterectomy. When given a choice, she choose to have it done in mid June (around the 10th), instead of about May 20th because of personal reasons (non-medical). Is this bad? Is there any need to rush into sugary, or will it not make a difference? It is most likely that she has only had this cancer (or symptoms have only been showing) for about five-six weeks.

    • ANSWER:
      From what I know about cancer I would never wait. The sooner it can be removed . . the 'safer' she'll be . . but that is a personal preference. Cancer is unforgiving . . it will not allow you to make one mistake. However, if she is going by the advice of her doctor . . he would certainly know more about her situation than anyone here.

  29. QUESTION:
    Thickening of inner Uterus "cancer" can anyone give me some information?

    • ANSWER:
      Overgrowth and thickening of the lining of the uterus is called endometrial hyperplasia. It is a precancerous condition with the potential to develop into a cancerous thickening of the lining of the uterus. It is most common at the beginning and end of the reproductive years and in women who do not ovulate regularly.

      Menstrual bleeding begins with the release of estrogen. This causes the lining of the uterus to shed. As women approach menopause, not as much estrogen is produced. Unless the lining of the uterus sheds regularly, tissues and glands will build up and may later become a breeding ground for abnormal growth of cells.

      Women with a uterus who take estrogen replacement therapy without progesterone are at a greater risk of developing endometrial hyperplasia. Other reasons for developing the condition are diabetes, polycystic ovary disease, or being overweight. If not treated, endometrial hyperplasia can progress to uterine cancer.

      Symptoms of endometrial hyperplasia include excessive menstrual bleeding and bleeding between periods. A biopsy of endometrial tissue confirms the diagnosis. Sometimes a D&C is performed to rule out precancerous forms of hyperplasia.

      Usually treatment for endometrial hyperplasia is with medication in the form of the hormone progesterone. The right form and dose are important to meeting the specific needs of the woman.

      In all cases, a repeat biopsy is necessary to be sure the lining is normal and the hyperplasia is resolved. If a biopsy comes back positive for precancerous cells, a hysterectomy may be recommended.

      Women can reduce their risk of endometrial hyperplasia by losing weight if they are overweight and consulting with their healthcare provider to identify and prescribe the right form of progesterone to take for their age and weight.it can turn into cancer..

  30. QUESTION:
    what is meant by post menopausal symptoms?
    doctors say that hysterectomy and oopherectomy will definitely lead to post menopausal symptoms at 32 years of age

    • ANSWER:
      The main post menopausal Bleeding. Postmenopausal bleeding can originate in different parts of the reproductive system. Bleeding from the vagina may occur because when estrogen secretion stops, the vagina dries out and can diminish (atrophy). This is the most common cause of bleeding from the lower reproductive tract.

      Lesions and cracks on the vulva may also bleed. Sometimes bleeding occurs after intercourse. Bleeding can occur with or without an associated infection.

      Bleeding from the upper reproductive system can be caused by:

      hormone replacements
      endometrial cancer
      endometrial polyps
      cervical cancer
      cervical lesions
      uterine tumors
      ovarian cancer
      estrogen-secreting tumors in other parts of the body

      The most common cause of postmenopausal bleeding is HRT. The estrogen in the replacement therapy eases the symptoms of menopause (like hot flashes), and decreases the risk of osteoporosis. Sometimes this supplemental estrogen stimulates the uterine lining to grow. When the lining is shed, postmenopausal bleeding occurs. Most women on HRT usually take the hormone progesterone with the estrogen, and may have monthly withdrawal bleeding. This is a normal side effect.

      About 5–10% of postmenopausal bleeding is due to endometrial cancer or its precursors. Uterine hyperplasia, the abnormal growth of uterine cells, can be a precursor to cancer.

      With regard to second part of your question, yes Hysterectomy and Oopherectomy proceedures will lead to some or these post amnopausal symptoms. -

  31. QUESTION:
    can i get pregnant during hormone therapy?
    it was described to me for three month, but my doctor said its not a birth Control pill, its called cyclo progynova, any one had it girls????? help please

    • ANSWER:
      Sorry I haven't had it I wish I could help.

      But I found this Info for you:

      How does it work?
      Cyclo-Progynova is a hormone replacement therapy (HRT) preparation. Each pack contains two types of tablets. The white tablets contain estradiol valerate and the pale brown tablets contain estradiol valerate in combination with norgestrel. Estradiol valerate (previously spelt oestradiol valerate in the UK) and norgestrel are forms of the main female sex hormones, oestrogen and progesterone. Estradiol valerate is a naturally occuring form of oestrogen and norgestrel is a synthetic form of progesterone.

      Womens’ ovaries gradually produce less and less oestrogen in the period up to the menopause, and oestrogen blood levels decline as a result. The declining levels of oestrogen can cause distressing symptoms, such as irregular periods, hot flushes, night sweats, mood swings and vaginal dryness or itching.

      Oestrogen (in this case in the form of estradiol valerate) can be given as a supplement to replace the falling levels in the body and help reduce these distressing symptoms of the menopause. This is known as hormone replacement therapy (HRT). HRT is usually only required for short-term relief from menopausal symptoms and its use should be reviewed at least once a year with your doctor.

      A progestogen (in this case in the form of norgestrel) is needed as part of HRT for women who have not had a hysterectomy. This is because in women with an intact womb, oestrogen stimulates the growth of the womb lining (endometrium), which can lead to endometrial cancer if the growth is unopposed. A progestogen is given to oppose oestrogen's effect on the womb lining and reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, though it does not eliminate this risk entirely. This is known as combined HRT.

      Cyclo-Progynova is a sequential form of combined HRT. This means that oestrogen is taken on a continuous basis and progesterone is added for a portion of each month. The white tablets taken in the first 11 days of each Cyclo-Progynova cycle contain only estradiol. The brown tablets taken in the next 10 days of each cycle contain both estradiol and norgestrel. After these 21 days you then have a seven day tablet-free break before the next cycle is started, rather like the combined contraceptive pill. This type of HRT is more suitable for women who are still having irregular periods, because it usually results in a monthly withdrawal bleed in the pill-free week.

      HRT is also sometimes used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The declining level of oestrogen at menopause can affect the bones, causing them to become thinner and more prone to breaking. Oestrogen supplements help prevent bone loss and fractures that may occur in women in the years after menopause.

      However, in December 2003, a review of the available evidence on the risks and benefits of HRT by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) and the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM) in the UK, concluded that the risks of using HRT long-term to prevent osteoporosis in women aged over 50 years exceed the benefits. As a result, this medicine should not be used as a first-line option for preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis in women over 50. However, it may be used as a second-line option for women at high risk of fractures who cannot take other medicines that are licensed for preventing osteoporosis.

      Women considered to be at high risk of developing fractures following the menopause include those who have had an early menopause, those with a family history of osteoporosis, those who have had recent prolonged corticosteroid therapy (eg prednisolone), those with a small thin frame, and smokers.

      You can read more about the risks and benefits of HRT and other medicines for preventing osteoporosis in the factsheets about menopause and osteoporosis linked below.

      What is it used for?
      Hormone replacement therapy to relieve symptoms of the menopause.
      Second-line option for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women who are at high risk of fractures and cannot take other medicines licensed for preventing osteoporosis.

      Warning!
      Women taking any form of HRT should have regular medical and gynaecological check-ups. Your need for continued HRT should be reviewed with your doctor at least once a year.
      It is important to be aware that all women using HRT have an increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer compared with women who don't use HRT. This risk needs to be weighed against the personal benefits to you of taking HRT. There is more detailed information about the risks and benefits associated with HRT in the factsheet about the menopause linked above. You should discuss these with your doctor before starting HRT. Women on HRT should have regular breast examinations and mammograms and should examine their own breasts regularly. Report any changes in your breasts to your doctor or nurse.
      It is important to be a

  32. QUESTION:
    Cancer help!?
    I am freaking out a little here. I have been recently diagnosed with endometrial cancer, and I dont know how bad it is or what to do. I have been diagnosed with PCOS, ameneroia and menghorrea (i dont know how i can have both, but yeah) when I was 18 years old, and Im now 23. I now have even more symptoms (change in bowel movements, fatigue, bloated feel, feel full all the time, loss of appetite, pain in vaginal area, pain after sex, pain in stomach) and Im scared. Does anyone have any advice or help as too what this all may be? People dont know how to answer me because this type of cancer is rare for people my age. I dont want to have to get a hysterectomy if I dont have too. HELP!!!

    • ANSWER:
      Endometrial cancer is highly curable. It's normal to be scare. You have to believe in your doctors and your treatment plan. Cancer isn't a death sentence any more. I think my niece had it and she now has three kids. You might not need a hysterctomy. You might have to do something you don't want to do in order to save your life. I wish you luck in your recovery.

      FYI,
      Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

      The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options depend on the following:

      The stage of the cancer (whether it is in the endometrium only, involves the whole uterus, or has spread to other places in the body).
      How the cancer cells look under a microscope.
      Whether the cancer cells are affected by progesterone.

  33. QUESTION:
    My ultrasound showed a 8.4 * 8.0 cm fibroid in the posterior wall of my uterus is this a big fibroid?
    My uterus is enlarged the size of 11.2 * 8.1cm, my ovaries are normal and also my kidneys could having this fibroid stop me from becoming pregnant PLEASE HELPPPPPPPPPPP PLEASEEEEEEEE could I have some response ASAP PLEASEEEEEEEEE thank you

    • ANSWER:
      Help for Women With Fibroids
      c. 2002 Susun S. Weed

      Wise Woman herbal and home remedies are simple, safe ways to help yourself when you have a diagnosis of uterine fibroids.

      Uterine fibroids are solid muscle tissue growths in the uterus. They are also called fibroid tumors, myomas, or leiomyomas. Fibroids occur so frequently (in up to half of all women over forty) that they could be considered a normal irregularity. The occasional fibroid can become enormous (medical literature reports one that was 100 pounds!), but the majority (80%) remain as small as a walnut.

      Fibroids are the number one reason American women have hysterectomies.

      The causes of uterine fibroids are unknown, but estrogens, especially estradiol, promote their growth. After menopause fibroids disappear. But because estrogen levels can rise during the early menopausal years, previously asymptomatic fibroids may grow in the years just before the cessation of menses, resulting in symptoms such as feeling of heaviness in the belly, low back pain, pain with vaginal penetration, urinary frequency or incontinence, bowel difficulties, or severe menstrual pain and flooding.

      Women of color are three to nine times more likely to have fibroids than white women, and theirs will grow more quickly.

      Fibroid tumors are not cancer, not malignant. Tumor means a swelling or a growth, not a malignancy, not cancer. Less than 0.1% of all uterine fibroids are malignant.

      Small fibroids often disappear spontaneously. Larger fibroids are more difficult to resolve, but not impossible to control with natural measures.

      • The “root chakra” (lowermost energy center in the body, which includes the uterus) said to store unexpressed anger. It is believed that any unwanted growths in these organs can be countered by allowing the anger to safely discharge.

      • One woman’s fibroids (and menstrual cramps) disappeared within three months of beginning a vigorous exercise program. Exercise helps insure regular ovulation, and irregular ovulation seems to worsen fibroids.

      • Consuming three or more servings of whole grains or beans daily not only reduces the size of fibroids but offers protection from breast and endometrial cancers as well.

      • Red clover flowers (Trifolium pratense), are one of my favorite infusions, but use during the menopausal years may increase difficulty with fibroids.

      • Strengthening the liver with herbs such as dandelion, milk thistle seed, or yellow dock root helps it metabolize estrogen out of the body, thus reducing fibroids.

      • Vitex or chasteberry tincture, 25-30 drops two to four times daily, often shrinks small fibroids within two months. But results come from long-term use — up to two years.

      • Ask someone to burn moxa over the area of the fibroid while you envision the heat releasing the treasures in your uterus. What is locked up in this fibroid? What can you give birth to?

      • Acupuncture treatments can shrink fibroids.

      • Poke root (Phytolacca americana), used internally as a tincture (1-10 drops per day; start small) and externally as a belly rub oil, has gained a reputation as a profound helper in relieving pain and distresses from fibroids. CAUTION: Poke is considered poisonous; it is not often found for sale. This is one remedy you may have to make yourself to try.

      • Warm castor oil packs on the belly, or ginger compresses (soak a towel in hot ginger water) relieve pain and help shrink the fibroids.

      • The use of progesterone to treat women with uterine fibroids is hotly debated. One side holds that fibroids are created by lack of progesterone. The other side makes, to my mind, the better case: that progesterone increases fibroids. Evidence? Fibroids increase in size during pregnancy, when progesterone production is high, and atrophy after menopause, when progesterone levels decrease. Whichever side is right, eating more whole grains and beans usually changes estrogen/progesterone ratio for the better and shrinks fibroids.

      • Reduce fibroids by reducing your exposure to estrogen: avoid birth control pills, ERT/HRT, estrogen-mimicing residues from herbicides and pesticides used on food crops (eat organically- raised products). Tampons that are bleached with chlorine may mimic the bad effects of estrogen, too.

      • Lupron (leuprolide acetate), a drug which induces “artificial menopause”by shutting down the body's production of estradiol causes a significant decrease in fibroid size within 8-12 weeks. Fibroids do regrow to about 90 percent of their original size when the drug is withdrawn however.

      • Major advances have been made in surgical treatments for women with fibroids. There are many options now besides hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), including hysteroscopic resection, uterine embolization, myomectomy, and suprecervical hysterectomy. Since these are fairly new procedures, take the time to find a surgeon who is skilled in the procedure.

      • Hysterectomy can be a life-saving procedure, but by the age of sixty, more than one-third of American women will have given up their wombs to the surgeons. The presence of non- symptomatic fibroids is never sufficient reason, to my mind, for a hysterectomy. Of my students and apprentices who have had hysterectomies because of fibroids, those who “did their homework” — that is, helped themselves before and after their surgery with all the tools at their disposal — seemed to fare much better than those who did not.

      • With very few exceptions, no woman is healthier without her ovaries. So, even if you elect a hysterectomy, keep your ovaries.

      These Wise Woman ways, and lots more, are in my book New Menopausal Years the Wise Woman Way, available from www.ashtreepublishing.com. They are arranged in order of risk: the safest first, the most dangerous last. If you have a uterine fibroid and it is a problem, begin with the mildest remedies first. Set a time limit for your use of any remedy, but, except in an emergency, don't go on to stronger remedies until you are sure the safer ones aren't effective for you. As with any advice, you are the best judge of what works for you.

  34. QUESTION:
    do any woman have or know anything bout polysistic ovaries and or endometritis???
    my name is amanda and im 22 with no kids and have both polysistic ovaries and endometritis...its really getting me down cause i have my period nearly all the time and i have already had 2 operations on it in the past....and its so painful..

    • ANSWER:
      Hi Amanda,

      I have both PCOS and endometriosis. My periods started early and have always been excruciating and very irregular. Sometimes i would bleed for a few months straight and then sometimes I would have no period for many months. It was a constant roller coaster ride and the doctors were not really very helpful either. I've had many surgeries (a few laporoscopies and dnc's) and at 24 a doctor suggested a hysterectomy but none of the doctors took my symptoms seriously.

      I chose not to have the hysterectomy because I wanted to have children. Because my symptoms went without proper treatment for so long, at 36 I have recently been diagnosed with endometrial cancer and most likely have to have a hysterectomy after all and I have not had children yet. My doctor has put me on metformin for the PCOS and progestin for the estrogen increase but it is very likely that I may not have developed cancer had the PCOS been properly treated years earlier. With PCOS there is usually an increase in weight because of decreased insulin sensitivity and the PCOS make it very difficult to lose weight, ironically that is the best treatment for it. I have put on weight in the past 5 years and for the past year I have eaten very healthy and do intense 1 - 1.5 hr workouts 5 -6 days / week and the weight is coming off very slowly. That is what the metformin helps with. The irregular periods need to be treated because that effects estrogen levels that can have very negative effects like cancer.

      I am not trying to scare you, I only want to stress how important it is to make sure YOU make the doctors treat your conditions properly. I am now receiving information that had I received it earlier would have made all the difference. I was made to feel in the past that I would just have to learn to live with it and I listened because we are taught to trust the doctors.

      I now have a doctor that is fabulous and I truly wish that I had found him sooner. I don't know where you live but he is in Vancouver and his name is Dr. Rosengarten. He has been such a blessing.

      I wish you the best my dear. And this can be treated don't just learn to live with it.

  35. QUESTION:
    Can you tell me what this means? "hyperplastic endometrial polyp with mild focal atypicality"? is this bad?
    Does this mean cancer? This was one f the findings when my mom had a hysterectomy. Were still waiting for the oncologist though becasue he's out of the country.

    • ANSWER:
      ENDOMETRIAL POLYPS — Endometrial polyps are localized hyperplastic overgrowths of endometrial glands and stroma that form a sessile or pedunculated projection from the surface of the endometrium. Single or multiple polyps can occur that range from a few millimeters to several centimeters in size. They rarely contain foci of neoplastic growth. In one large series of 509 consecutive women with endometrial polyps removed by operative hysteroscopy, histology was benign in 70 percent, and showed hyperplasia without atypia in 26 percent, hyperplasia with atypia in 3 percent, and cancer in 0.8 percent. The mean age of the women was 56 years and just over one-half had abnormal uterine bleeding.
      Epidemiology — Endometrial polyps are rare among women younger than 20 years of age. The incidence rises steadily with increasing age, peaks in the fifth decade of life, and gradually declines after menopause. Among women undergoing endometrial biopsy or hysterectomy, the prevalence of endometrial polyps is 10 to 24 percent.
      Clinical features — Endometrial polyps are responsible for approximately one-fourth of cases of abnormal genital bleeding in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. (See "Evaluation and management of abnormal uterine bleeding in premenopausal women" and see "Evaluation and management of uterine bleeding in postmenopausal women"). Metrorrhagia (ie, irregular bleeding) is the most frequent symptom in women with endometrial polyps, occurring in about one-half of symptomatic cases. Less frequent symptoms include menorrhagia, postmenopausal bleeding, prolapse through the cervical os, and breakthrough bleeding during hormonal therapy.
      Diagnosis — Endometrial polyps are diagnosed by microscopic examination of a specimen obtained after curettage, endometrial biopsy, or hysterectomy. Excision permits both diagnosis and cure of these lesions. Neither ultrasonography nor hysteroscopy can reliably distinguish between benign and malignant polyps.
      Natural history — A prospective study on the course of endometrial polyps performed two saline infusion sonograms 2.5 years apart on 64 initially asymptomatic women (mean age 44 years). Seven women had polyps on the first examination. Four of these women had spontaneous regression of their polyps at the second scan, while seven women developed new polyps over the 2.5 year interval. Polyps larger than 1 cm were least likely to regress. Hormone use did not appear to affect the natural history of the polyps, but the study sample was small.
      Treatment — Thorough curettage cures the majority of cases of endometrial polyps. Curettage followed by blind extraction with Randall polyp forceps improves the detection rate over curettage alone. Hysteroscopic-guided curettage is recommended since small polyps and other structural abnormalities can be missed by blind curettage.
      For women desiring pregnancy, short-term downregulation with a GnRH-agonist may be useful. However, clinical experience with this approach is restricted to a few case reports and symptoms reappear after discontinuation of agonist therapy. In a randomized trial with inclusion criteria 24 months infertility, candidate for intrauterine insemination, and histologically confirmed sonographic diagnosis of endometrial polyp, hysteroscopic polypectomy before intrauterine insemination was associated with a significantly higher pregnancy rate (63 versus 28 percent in controls). Based on this trial, and other data from observational studies, we remove endometrial polyps in infertile women, even in the absence of abnormal bleeding.

  36. QUESTION:
    Mom is 84 Dr. wants to her to have a hysterectomy....they are concerned about cancer.?
    I am worried her age may be against her, she is healthy right now.Has anyone known someone her age, and how did they make out after surgery ? Thank you.
    she has a lot of scar tissue and they will only know if its cancer , if they preform the surgery.
    To Deenseed ( ? ) he said there is a 70 % chance is it cancer
    Sorry...Denisedd for hacking your name

    • ANSWER:
      Her age doesn’t exclude her from surgery that depends on other medical conditions and she would have to be cleared beforehand. I see patients in their 80s undergo surgery all the time. There is always a risk with surgery regardless of age, but the vast majority does just fine. They should know if she has cancer or not. This is pretty much the deal breaker here. They should have also done metastatic work up, if not, how is the doctor explaining the benefit of surgery over the risks involved?

      EDIT: Having an open surgery DOES NOT make cancer spread or grow. That isn’t even logical. I have no idea who or what BHO is or how they are in any position to permit anything.

      EDIT: In this case they would have a good idea based on imagining and her symptoms. If her endometrial lining is more than 5mm and/or if she is having vaginal bleeding there is a very good chance it is cancer. The standard of care is to assume these patients have cancer until proven otherwise. If doing a biopsy will cause her undo stress and/or pain and the chance of getting a good sample is small, it may be best to proceed with surgery. Uterine cancer has a very good prognosis when caught early. I know a hysterectomy is no walk in the park. Recovery takes 6-8 weeks for a woman of 40. However, someone in their 80s has a better chance of living to be 100 than you or I do. That is another 16 years. She wont have that long is she does have cancer. Ultimately of course it is her decision.

  37. QUESTION:
    Bleeding during sexual intercourse?
    i am 16 and using a contreceptive pill, i have been on 3 different ones in the last year.
    whenever me and my boyfriend have sex, or do foreplay, i tend to bleed (end of period blood) and have been doing so for about over a year, however it hasnt been everytime.
    should i be worried or?

    • ANSWER:
      Hello Twoand, here is an internet article I found in regards to bleeding during sex and the reasons, I hope this helps you with a few of your questions. Take care.

      Bleeding from intercourse, also known as post-coital bleeding, is vaginal bleeding that occurs after sexual intercourse. This bleeding can result for a variety of reasons, ranging from vaginal trauma, cervical conditions or infections and STDs. Bleeding after sex is not normal and should be evaluated by a physician immediately. The treatment that your physician recommends depends on the underlying cause of the bleeding.

      While in many women may experience bleeding or spotting between periods, this is not the same as bleeding either during or after intercourse. Any other type of vaginal bleeding is considered to be abnormal. Excessive/constant bleeding during or after intercourse accompanied by pain or even vaginal discharge should be addressed by a physician. This could be a sign of an infection of the pelvic organs or a sexually transmitted disease.

      Bleeding during or after intercourse could be attributed to infections ranging from yeast infections to vaginitis. Endometritis, adenomyosis and endometriosis can also cause vaginal bleeding during or after intercourse. In the case of endometriosis, the endometrial tissue that should be lining the uterus has grown on to other organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes or even the bladder. These conditions are not life threatening but could cause pain and disrupt a woman's quality of life. In certain severe cases and cases where treatment has been delayed endometriosis may require a hysterectomy to permanently resolve symptoms. Additional vaginal infections such as thrush may increase the blood supply and make the vaginal surface more prone to bleeding.

      3. Could Be Caused By an STD
      Bleeding accompanied by pain may be attributed to a sexually transmitted disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infection of the upper genital tract usually presents itself with bleeding accompanied by pain and a fever. If these symptoms are present during or after sexual intercourse a physician should be consulted immediately.

      4. Birth Control Culprit
      Women who have had an intra uterine device (IUD) inserted could experience light bleeding during intercourse during the first few weeks after insertion of the device. Some women who are taking a combination birth control contraceptive may be more prone to what is known as cervical erosion. Cervical erosion occurs when there is a partial or complete absence of the surface area of the cervix. The majority of women with cervical erosion may not have any symptoms; however, few may be faced with excessive discharge or bleeding after intercourse.

      5. Cervical Cancer Warning
      In general, irregular vaginal bleeding is due to non-cancerous conditions. In women that are pre-menopausal irregular vaginal bleeding can be caused due to hormonal fluctuations and not due to cancer. Women that are older, and particularly post-menopausal women, vaginal bleeding could be an indication of a gynecologic cancer or possibly a non-cancerous condition. The most important thing to do is to consult with your physician about whether you are at increased risk for any cancers due to vaginal bleeding.

      Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/8791-need-bleeding-from-intercourse/#ixzz1tcQYsylA

  38. QUESTION:
    what is the safest & most effective replacement for ERT?

    • ANSWER:
      None. There is no "safe" ERT (estrogen replacement therapy). Unopposed estrogen has long been known to cause endometrial carcinoma and other cancers (i.e. ovarian). If you must be on HRT at all, consider only a combined therapy (estrogen and progestins), rather than unopposed estrogen or progestin therapy alone.

      From the Data:

      "Two studies reported in the June 25, 2003 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association held more bad news for women getting hormone replacement therapy. One study of women who took a combination of estrogen and progestin, a synthetic form of progesterone, showed they were at risk of getting a more aggressive form of breast cancer than women who didn't get HRT.

      Not only were women more likely to develop breast cancer if they took the hormones, researchers wrote, but their tumors tended to be larger and more advanced than breast cancers that developed in women who took a placebo. Women on combination hormone therapy were also more likely to have abnormal mammograms -- even in the first year of treatment -- than women taking a placebo, according to the same study.

      Another study of 975 women conducted by researchers at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and reported in the same issue of JAMA found that the increased risk of breast cancer from the combination hormone therapy remained the same, whether the two hormones were taken at the same time or one after the other in the course of a month.

      The news was one in a series of setbacks in less than a year for combination HRT. In July 2002, researchers called a halt to a government-run study of a hormone therapy used by millions of older women after they found that long-term use of estrogen and progestin raised the risk of heart disease, stroke and blood clots, and invasive breast cancer. And in May 2003 a study reported that combination HRT appeared to increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia.

      The bad news continued in 2004, with a study in the February 23, 2004 edition of the Archives of Internal Medicine. Reviewing data collected over eight years from over 120,000 women, researchers found that those who used HRT after menopause were more than twice as likely to develop asthma as women who didn't take hormones. The increased risk of asthma was about the same whether women took estrogen only, or took a combination of estrogen and progestin.

      Some women may be able to take hormone replacement therapy to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms in the short term without any ill effects. However, the latest news about associated health risks has led doctors to believe that the risks are serious enough to outweigh the benefits of the therapy for many women. After five years of taking a combination of estrogen and synthetic progesterone, women in a national clinical trial known as the Women's Health Initiative were found to be at such high risk for life-threatening diseases that their portion of the trial was halted three years early in May 2002. "We conclude that estrogen plus progestin does not prevent heart disease and is not beneficial overall," the researchers wrote.

      Estrogen taken without progestin can cause uterine cancer. Therefore, for some years doctors have recommended that the only women who should take estrogen without progestin on a continuous basis are women who have had a hysterectomy. For women without a hysterectomy, the only recommended hormone replacement therapy is the combination of estrogen and progestin, which does not cause an increased risk of uterine cancer.

      But a study reported in the July 17, 2002 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association links the use of estrogen alone as a hormone replacement therapy to a possible increase in the risk of ovarian cancer. Researchers studied medical records dating as far back as 1973 of 44,421 women on ERT and found they had at least a 60 percent higher risk of ovarian cancer than women who had never used hormone replacement therapy. In view of this latest news, some doctors are reevaluating the safety of estrogen replacement therapy for everyone except women who have had a hysterectomy and who have had both ovaries removed.

      The Woman's Health Initiative Study is the largest and most definitive study to date on hormone replacement therapy. In a study of more than 16,000 women, sponsored by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the test group was given a pill containing a combination of estrogen and progestin. A control group was given a placebo, or dummy pill.

      Compared with the women who took placebos, the rate of coronary heart disease among women in the test group was 29 percent higher. The same group had a 41 percent increase in the rate of strokes, twice the number of blood clots, and a 26 percent increase in invasive breast cancer rates. The rate of cardiovascular disease increased by 22 percent.

      That's not all. In a sub-study of 4,500 women aged 65 and older in the Women's Health Initiative, those on the HRT regimen were found to be twice as likely to develop Alzheimer's disease or another form of dementia within five years compared with women who took a placebo. This part of the study, reported in the May 28, 2003 edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), also found that the estrogen/progestin therapy was ineffective in preventing mild cognitive impairment, a dimming of cognitive function that is less severe than dementia and which sometimes occurs as we age.

      HRT has often been prescribed for the treatment of urinary incontinence. A recent analysis by Women's Health Initiative investigators found that HRT caused or worsened urinary incontinence in participants in the trial. Researchers found that women taking estrogen combined with progesterone had a 39 percent greater risk of urinary incontinence than participants taking a placebo. Women taking only estrogen had a 52 percent greater risk than women not taking the hormone, according to the study in the February 23, 2005 JAMA.

      The Women's Health Initiative study did find a few benefits from the HRT regimen, including a 37 percent reduction in the rate of colorectal cancer, one-third fewer hip fractures, and a 24 percent reduction in total fractures. The authors of an article on the trial's results, published in the July 17, 2002 issue of JAMA, stress that even though the percentage of risk was high compared to women who didn't take hormones, the actual number of women getting these illnesses was small.

      This means that out of 10,000 women taking HRT, seven more would be expected to have coronary heart disease events, eight more would have breast cancer, eight more would have strokes, and eight more would have blood clots. And 22 more women over 65 would develop Alzheimer's disease or another form of dementia.

      On the plus side, six fewer women would have colorectal cancer and five fewer women would have hip fractures. But the difference between the women taking HRT and those on placebo was alarming enough to halt at five years a portion of the study that was supposed last more than eight years.

      In another study of over 1,800 women conducted by the Duke Clinical Research Institute, women who began hormone replacement therapy after having a heart attack were more likely to die or have other heart attacks than women who had never been on HRT, or who began the therapy before developing heart problems. Up until recently, many women without prior heart problems had been prescribed HRT to help prevent heart disease. But doctors now know that it may raise the risk."

  39. QUESTION:
    Can HRT cause skin ageing?
    I have noticed a difference in my body over the past couple of months and feel that my body now looks older than it should. I am on estrogen only, and have been now for about a year, due to having to have a hystorecomy because of a cancer scare. Have any other women noticed this while on estrogen and if so is there some way to solve this problem? For some reason I have not noticed a difference in my face, only on my body. Any advice would be appreciated. Thanks.

    • ANSWER:
      If you have had a hysterectomy, including the loss of ovaries, you are Estrogen Dominant.
      And now, you are pumping MORE estrogen into your already overloaded hormone system.

      In addition, synthetic estrogen is known to CAUSE cancer!!

      Get a saliva test done to evaluate your hormone levels. I'm willing to bet that you need progesterone. NATURAL progesterone.

      Estrogen Dominance & What Are The Symptoms

      Doctors have historically recommended, and prescribed, synthetic estrogens and progestins to treat the symptoms of menopause and PMS. This is largely because most of the information that the doctors receive about new treatments are from the pharmaceutical companies. And because a product that can be produced naturally can not be patented the pharmaceutical companies have to create a synthetic version with a slightly modified molecule in order to patent the product.

      This however has been shown to be extremely unhealthy for your body. A New England Journal of Medicine article in 1995 involving 121,700 women showed that the chance of developing breast cancer went up to 40 percent in women that used estrogens and progestins (synthetic progesterone) for more than five years. Estrogen dominance is a term coined by Dr. Lee. It describes a condition where a woman can have deficient, normal, or excessive estrogen but has little or no progesterone to balance its effects in the body. Evan a woman with low estrogen levels can have estrogen-dominance symptoms if she doesn’t have any progesterone.

      The symptoms and conditions associated with estrogen dominance are:
      ******Acceleration of the aging process******
      Allergy symptoms, including asthma, hives, rashes, sinus congestion
      Arthritis
      Autoimmune disorders such as lupus erythematosis and thyroiditis, and possible Sjogren’s disease
      Breast cancer
      Breast cysts
      Breast tenderness
      Candida
      Cervical dysplasia
      Chronic fatigue
      Cold hands and feet as a symptom of thyroid dysfunction
      Copper excess
      Decreased sex drive
      Depression with anxiety or agitation
      Dry eyes
      Early onset of menstruation
      Endometriosis
      Endometrial (uterine) cancer
      Fat gain, especially around the abdomen, hips, and thigh
      Fatigue
      Fibrocystic breasts
      Foggy thinking
      Gallbladder disease
      Hair loss
      High blood pressure
      Headaches
      Hot flashes
      Hypoglycemia
      Increased blood clotting (increasing risk of strokes)
      Infertility
      Irregular menstrual periods
      Irritability
      Insomnia
      Magnesium deficiency
      Memory loss
      Mood swings
      Osteoporosis
      Painful swollen breasts
      PMS
      Polcystic ovaries
      Premenopausal bone loss
      Prostate cancer
      Sluggish metabolism
      Skin: Rosacea, rashes, dermatitis
      Thyroid dysfunction mimicking hypothyroidism
      Uterine cancer
      Uterine fibroids
      Water retention, bloating
      Yeast infection
      Zinc deficiency
      The above information was taken from "What Your Doctor may not tell you about Premenopause" by John R. Lee, M.D.

      John R. Lee, M.D. is internationally acknowledged as a pioneer and expert in the study and use of the hormone progesterone, and on the subject of hormone replacement therapy for women. He used transdermal progesterone extensively in his clinical practice for nearly a decade, doing research which showed that it can reverse osteoporosis.

  40. QUESTION:
    Please help! if you have ANY experience please tell me about it! Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Pelvic Pain etc.?
    I have been recently diagnosised with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. I have been to the hospital 5-6 times within the last 4 months with pain and complications. I have a long history of cyst problems and pain also on both sides of my parents family are multiple tpyes of cancers. Now with all this in mind I have had ultrasound that read things like:
    free fluid in pelvis,coagulase positive staph, escherichia coli& possible 2nd gram,Klebsiella pneumoniae, double thickness of endometrial stripe 3.4mm, ovaries contain numerous peripheral subcentimeter cysts,mild prominrnce of right renal pelvis likely an atonic or extrarenal pelvis. What does all of those test findings mean? Im still having pain frequently and it comes on sudden and severe but nobody seems to "fix" the problem or know exactly whats going on? These are my symptoms as of right now: Right Ovarian/pelvic pain, Swollen Thyroid and Right Swollen Tonsil, Headache, Nausea, Vomitting, Fever, and (Crazy Abnormal Bleeding for the last 6 months) Can any help me? One of my doctors wants to test for Endometrial Cancer? Does anyone have similar issues?

    • ANSWER:
      Okay I am going to help you but I am going to explain to you one at a time so that way you understand and I can understand at the same time.

      1. Double thickness of endometrial stripe means there is some endometriosis scarring.
      2. You have a lot of numerous cysts on your ovaries from the side view of the US that was conducted.
      3. Your going to have frequent pain because you have multiple cysts on your ovaries.
      4. You can't fix the problems of the ovaries without surgical removal of the cysts or the cysts rupture on their own causing severe pain.
      5. I never heard of a swollen thyroid because the thyroid is the hormone in your body that balances weight, and other hormone regulated activity that can only be detected with an abnormality through blood tests.
      6. Swollen tonsil, is completely seperated from PCOS
      7. Headache can be due to issues with the pituitary gland.
      8. Nausea and Vomiting can be because of the Head ache
      9. Fever is completely seperated from PCOS also you may have a virus cold or flu
      10. Abnormal bleeding is highly likely with PCOS cause your women parts as I call them are suffering irregular problems and so you are likely to bleed irregular of you may not bleed at all.

      They want to test for the cancer because of the scarring. This can spread a lot of women end up having partial or full hysterectomy due to all these issues.

  41. QUESTION:
    Im looking 4 women who might have similar symptoms. I have endometriosis and endo.hyperplasia. SERIOUS ANSWER
    I have always had pain with intercourse. After child 1, the Dr. did a laproscopy and removed alot of tissue. He also said I had a low lying uterus and that in 10 years I would need a hysterectomy. After child 3 I was having alot of pain. The Dr. did another lap. and a dnc. When I went to get the results he said I had endometrial hyperplasia. I took HRT for 4 months and had another biopsy. It was normal, but I was still having pain with intercourse, heavy bleeding, and a feeling of swelling inside. I've been on 3 b.c. pills and the shot. All of which have made me sick. They put me on estrogen for 2 months to reverse the shot because I was ill. I also had an exam on June 30, in between the 1 and 2 shot. I started bleeding that day and haven't stopped yet. Most days are spotting, but heavy spotting, other days are bleeding. I've only had 6 days when it has been next to nothing. On these days we've had sex and it starts again. I also have abdomen swelling. What do I do?

    • ANSWER:
      In the few cases in which dysfunctional uterine bleeding does not respond to any of the management options, hysterectomy or endometrial ablation can be done. A hysterectomy is indicated when a patient has associated pelvic abnormalities such as leiomyomas and does not wish to preserve fertility. Endometrial ablation is a less costly, safer alternative to hysterectomy for women with no uterine lesions. Ablation can be performed on an outpatient basis with a laser or electrocautery device (roller ball). Since endometrial hyperplasia could lead to cancer estimated at 10% to 20%, the above options may be considered for better quality of life.

  42. QUESTION:
    Cancer of the Uterus?
    My mom just told me that she has cancer of the uterus. Is she going to be ok?

    • ANSWER:
      Cancers of the uterus are diagnosed by endometrial biopsy, D&C, hysteroscopy and sometimes only after hysterectomy. The important point is that any postmenopausal bleeding must be considered a cancer of the uterus until proven otherwise. It is fortunate that uterine cancers bleed early so symptoms are early and if the bleeding is not ignored, diagnosis is early. Three-fourths of all uterine cancers are diagnosed at an early stage. Of these about three-fourths are of favorable grade. This is why the number of deaths from uterine cancer is low even though it is the most frequently diagnosed gynecologic cancer.
      Since most patients are diagnosed at an early stage and with an optimal grade, most patients are cured. Nevertheless, stage for stage it is just as bad a cancer as any other. Most recurrences will occur in the first two years. If none have occurred by five years the patient is considered cured.

      FIVE YEAR SURVIVAL FOR UTERINE ADENOCARCINOMA

      Stage I80%
      Stage II65%
      Stage III30%
      Stage IV10%

      Stage IA, grade I, cancers have a five year survival in excess of 95%. The prognosis depends on the substage and the grade.
      All said the doc treating her stage ca. and plan treatment.
      As I stated above overall prognosis is good.Be optimistic.
      Wish your Mom early recovery.

  43. QUESTION:
    Causes for cramps (besides the obvious)?
    I don't get my period anymore since I'm on birth control, and I took a pregnancy test at the doctor's office and it came out a strong negative. But, I've been having some wicked cramps. Especially my lower right abdominal area. It's not a UTI/infection/STD or my appendex, and my doctor is honestly stumped. I would really like to know what it us because the pain is just horrible. Any guesses?

    • ANSWER:
      Fibroids can cause extreme discomfort.

      Uterine fibroids are noncancerous (benign) tumors that develop in the womb (uterus), a female reproductive organ.

      Causes, incidence, and risk factors

      Uterine fibroids are common. As many as 1 in 5 women may have fibroids during their childbearing years (the time after starting menstruation for the first time and before menopause). Half of all women have fibroids by age 50.

      Fibroids are rare in women under age 20. They are more common in African-Americans than Caucasians.

      The cause of uterine fibroids is unknown. However, their growth has been linked to the hormone estrogen. As long as a woman with fibroids is menstruating, a fibroid will probably continue to grow, usually slowly.

      Fibroids can be so tiny that you need a microscope to see them. However, they can grow very large. They may fill the entire uterus, and may weigh several pounds. Although it is possible for just one fibroid to develop, usually there are more than one.

      Fibroids are often described by their location in the uterus:

      Myometrial -- in the muscle wall of the uterus

      Submucosal -- just under the surface of the uterine lining

      Subserosal -- just under the outside covering of the uterus

      Pendunculated -- occurring on a long stalk on the outside of the uterus or inside the cavity of the uterus

      Symptoms

      More common symptoms of uterine fibroids are:

      Bleeding between periods

      Heavy menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), sometimes with the passage of blood clots

      Menstrual periods that may last longer than normal

      Need to urinate more often

      Pelvic cramping or pain with periods

      Sensation of fullness or pressure in lower abdomen

      Pain during intercourse

      Note: There are often no symptoms. Your health care provider may find them during a physical exam or other test. Fibroids often shrink and cause no symptoms in women who have gone through menopause.

      Signs and tests

      The health care provider will perform a pelvic exam. This may show that you have a change in the shape of your womb (uterus).

      It can be difficult to diagnose fibroids, especially if you are extremely overweight.

      An ultrasound may be done to confirm the diagnosis of fibroids. Sometimes, a pelvic MRI is done.

      An endometrial biopsy (biopsy of the uterine lining) or laparoscopy may be needed to rule out cancer.

      Treatment

      Treatment depends on several things, including:

      Your age

      General health

      Severity of symptoms

      Type of fibroids

      Whether you are pregnant

      If you want children in the future

      Some women may just need pelvic exams or ultrasounds every once in a while to monitor the fibroid's growth.

      Treatment for the symptoms of fibroids may include:

      Birth control pills (oral contraceptives) to help control heavy periods

      Intrauterine devices (IUDs) that release the hormone progestin to help reduce heavy bleeding and pain

      Iron supplements to prevent or treat anemia due to heavy periods

      Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen or naprosyn for cramps or pain

      Short-term hormonal therapy injections to help shrink the fibroids

      Surgery and procedures used to treat fibroids include:

      Hysteroscopic resection of fibroids: Women who have fibroids growing inside the uterine cavity may need this outpatient procedure to remove the fibroid tumors.

      Uterine artery embolization: This procedure stops the blood supply to the fibroid, causing it to die and shrink. Women who may want to become pregnant in the future should discuss this procedure with their health care provider.

      Myomectomy: This surgery removes the fibroids. It is often the chosen treatment for women who want to have children, because it usually can preserve fertility. More fibroids can develop after a myomectomy.

      Hysterectomy: This invasive surgery may be an option if medicines do not work and other surgeries and procedures are not an option.

  44. QUESTION:
    Extremely heavy period with huge blood clots!?
    my mom started getting hot flashes about 2 years ago She was 46, so we blamed it on menopuase She has had different menopause symptoms as well Her periods have been super funky this last year They have been a lot heavier and sometimes she gets 2 in 1 month She just went 2 months without having 1 so we thought she was done for good But she finally started She has now been on it for 10 days and it is scary heavy, its not slowing down at all. she changes her pad about every 30 mins. She has to sleep with towels under her She says that she continuously has blood clots coming out of her the size of grapefruits aprox. She feels decent, a little dizzy and weak. I have her taking an iron supplament. I told her that her doctor will probably put her on vitamins or hormones And maybe if she absolutely needs it, give her a hysterectomy . Also, since her period she's been having extreme shoulder pain that comes and goes. Her hearts fine. So I was wondering if there could be possible internal bleeding? We gave her ob gyn a call but they can't return it until tomorrow. I have her taking it easy She's in good health, she's had 4 kids, all 5 of her sisters and her mom had to have hysterectomys for whatever reasons. If anybody could give me any info or advice, that'd be great!:) Do you think its possibly worth a trip to the ER?

    • ANSWER:
      It's probably fibroids. Take her to the ER because she could bleed to death, it's been known to happen. She will likely have to have a hysterectomy.

      Umm, thumbs downer -- clots the size of GRAPEFRUITS and having to change your pad every half hour is serious business. My good friend, who is in her 50's had the exact same symptoms, and needed blood transfusions for it. It turned out to be fibroids. It could also be endometrial cancer, but I didn't really want to say that because hopefully it's just fibroids -- they're way more common anyway.

  45. QUESTION:
    anyone with Uterine ( Endometrial Cancer) I just had surgery for this.?
    if any of you ladies have any sort of sign of irregular bleeding,uterine biopsies, any abnormal vaginal ultrasounds, etc etc, do what your doctor says. for over a year I told myself I was just having bleeding between periods because I had fibroids, and had cysts on my ovaries in the past. I knew something was wrong but I was scared. I didnt think I had even been through menopause. I went back to the doctor and the biopsy confirmed I have Uterine cancer. It has been llike a nightmare for me. Hopefully the cancer is now gone since I had a total hysterectomy and they took out the lymph nodes also. Anyone else had this? I didnt have chemo or radiation, I wonder if I should?
    I did NOT have chemo or radiation.

    • ANSWER:
      I am only 16 and so far I've been lucky to not have Cancer, but Fran Drescher had Uterine Cancer a few years ago and wrote a book and made a huge movement organization both called "Cancer Schmancer." I reccommend that to you so much because it's all about symptoms and what to do and her journey about after she beat it. it will inspire you because you are beating it.. and I'm sure it has info about your question. I would go to a doctor about it asap just to be sure. Good job on a good surgery! :) stay strong like you are.

  46. QUESTION:
    IS AN OVARIAN CYSTADENOMA A CANCER?
    HI I AM 26 AND I HAD SEVERE PELVIC PAIN LAST WEEK AND WENT TO THE ER 2 DIFFERENT HOSPITALS THEY BOTH CONFIRMED THAT I HAVE AN ABNORMAL OVARIAN CYSTIC MASS ON MY LEFT OVARY. THE REPORT SAYS MOST LIKELY A CYTADENOMA I AM WAITING TO BE SEEN NEXT WEDNESDAY BUT I AM WORRIED SICK IT IS LIKE TENNIS BALL SIZED I HAD A PARTIAL HYSTERECTOMY IN 04 THEY TOOK MY UTERUS AND LEFT MY OVARIES AND CERVIX. ALSO I WENT TO THE ER IN O6 WITH THE SAME PROBLEM THEY PUT ME ON BIRTH CONTROL 2 WEEKS LATER I WENT BACK AND THE MAN SAID THAT IT WAS GONE BY DOING A VERY QUICK ULTRASOUND. HE SAID I HAVE A UTERUS I THOUGHT HE IS CRAZY THEY THEY ALSO CONFIRMED THIS IS THE SAME EXACT ONE FROM 06 ALSO IT HAS MULTIPLE THIN WALLS??? PLEASE HELP ME I AM ON MOTRIN AND OXYCODONE NOW BUT I AM SOOOOO SCARED PLEASE HELP ME IT WAS THE SAME ONE AS 06 SAYS IN THE ULTRSOUND AND HAS GOTTEN LARGER. ( THIS IS A DIFFERENT HOSPITAL THAT CONFIRMED THIS TIME BUT THE SAME NETWORK THAT IS HOW THEY LOOKED AT THE ONE FROM 06 AND CONFIRMED, PLEASE HELP ANYONE WITH THE SAME THING OR KNOWLEDGE

    • ANSWER:
      According to this article, they are almost always non-cancerous but they can cause complications if they get too big.

      Deep breath hun.

      Cystadenomas

      Unlike functional ovarian cysts, which develop from variations in the normal function of the ovaries, or endometrial cysts, which are a consequence of endometriosis, or even polycystic ovaries, which result from hormone imbalance, cystadenomas are known as neoplasms, meaning “new growths.” Ovarian neoplasms are new and abnormal formations that develop from the ovarian tissue. Cystadenomas are the most common type.

      Cystadenomas are classified according to the type of fluid they contain. A serous cystadenoma is filled with a thin watery fluid and is relatively large, between 2 and 6 inches in diameter. This type most frequently appears in women in their 30s and 40s, but may occur in women between the ages of 20 and 50.

      A serous cystadenoma usually causes no specific symptoms, unless it grows to be so large that it results in weight gain and a large abdomen. Generally, these cysts are discovered during a routine gynecological exam. Although considered a benign growth, they do have the potential to become malignant.

      A mucinous cystadenoma is filled with a sticky, thick gelatinous material and can become enormous. While most are between 6 and 12 inches in diameter, there have been rare cases of gigantic tumors measuring up to 40 inches and weighing over 100 pounds. Mucinous cystadenomas develop most often in women between the ages of 30 and 50.

      Although cystadenomas are almost always benign, complications may develop. If they grow very large, they can interfere with other abdominal organs, disturbing the normal functioning of the stomach, intestines, and bowel. They may also twist, rupture, or bleed. Keep in mind, though, that if you have regular gynecological exams, your doctor would probably discover a cystadenoma long before it could grow to its potentially enormous size.

  47. QUESTION:
    What is a D&C?(after miscarriage?)?

    • ANSWER:
      Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Introduction
      The dilation and curettage procedure is called a D&C. The D stands for dilation, which means enlarging. Curettage (the C) means scraping. Together, this procedure involves expanding or enlarging the entrance of a woman’s uterus so that a thin, sharp instrument can scrape or suction away the lining of the uterus and take tissue samples.

      Today, the procedure is routine and considered safe. It is minor surgery performed in a hospital or ambulatory surgery center or clinic. D&C is usually a diagnostic procedure and seldom is therapeutic. It may stop bleeding for a little while (2-6 months), then the prior abnormal bleeding tends to return.

      A generation ago, many women were not given this option for so-called female problems. Instead, they were left with the option of hysterectomy (complete removal of the uterus/womb) or other major surgery.

      A D&C is seldom done as a lone procedure anymore. It is most frequently done as an adjunct procedure to a hysteroscopy and/or polypectomy. A D&C is often used for the following conditions:

      Irregular bleeding: You may experience irregular bleeding from time to time, including spotting between periods. If the spotting develops into continuous midcycle bleeding, your health care provider may perform a D&C to investigate the cause of bleeding.

      Too much bleeding: Bleeding with long, heavy periods, or bleeding after menopause, can signal a number of problems. These symptoms may not need immediate investigation. You may observe and record them. At some point, though, your doctor may look for a cause that is best detected with a hysteroscopy.

      Fibroids and polyps: These conditions are very common. In fact, they are thought to occur in about 20% of all women. Fibroid tumors are noncancerous growths appearing in and on the uterus. Some even grow out from the uterine wall on a stalk. Fibroids can cause chronic pain and heavy bleeding. Polyps, like fibroids, are noncancerous growths and are a common cause of irregular bleeding. Polyps and fibroids can have symptoms that resemble other more serious causes of bleeding. Your doctor may still want to perform a hysteroscopy.

      Endometrial cancer: Cancer is a scary word, especially when it is said about you. A D&C and hysteroscopy are often performed to make certain your symptoms are not caused by uterine cancer. It is, of course, important to detect cancer in its earliest, most curable stages.

      Therapeutic D&C: A D&C is often planned as treatment when the source of the problem is already known. One situation is an incomplete miscarriage or even full-term delivery when, for some reason, the uterus has not pushed out all the fetal or placental tissue inside of it. If tissue is left behind, excess bleeding can result, perhaps even life–threatening bleeding. This is an important reason why your doctor will want to remove any remaining tissue with a D&C.

      Your health care provider will avoid D&C in the following situations, except when absolutely necessary:

      Pelvic infection: If you have an infection involving your reproductive tract, there is a chance the surgical instruments that will enter the vagina and cervix can carry the bacteria from your vagina or cervix into your uterus. There is also an increased risk of injury to infected tissue. For these reasons, your doctor may prefer to wait until after the infection is cleared up with antibiotics before performing the D&C.

      Blood clotting disorders: Doctors depend on the body's natural ability to clot to stop bleeding after curettage. Women with certain blood disorders are usually not given this surgery.

      Serious medical problems: Heart and lung disease, for example, can make general, and sometimes local, anesthesia risky.
      In fact, D&C is no longer performed as commonly as it was even a decade ago, thanks to advances in diagnosis (e.g., ultrasound and hysteroscopy) and nonsurgical hormonal (e.g., oral contraceptives) and antihormonal (e.g., Lupron) therapies.

      Good Luck...

  48. QUESTION:
    Women with ovarian cancer - can you please tell me about it?
    I have some symptoms that are synonymous with ovarian cancer. Tomorrow I am having a trans-vaginal ultrasound and an endometrial biopsy next week.

    Women who either have, or have had ovarian cancer, can you please tell me about your symptoms prior to being diagnosed? And what happened afterwards?

    If you don't feel like writing in a public forum, can you please email me? You can do this my going to my profile.

    I would very much appreciate the personal information, if you are willing. Thank you in advance.
    @Pearl - I didn't list my symptoms. Sorry about your hysterectomy. Ladies, I am looking for personal experiences, thank you.

    • ANSWER:
      i havent had ovarian cancer but ive had a big fibroid that was making me hemmorage all the time.i ended up having a hysterectomy which was not a picnic but necessary., you sound like you could have fibroids, your symptoms aint necessarily cancer, they could be fibroids

  49. QUESTION:
    is this normal for fibroid tumors ?
    i was informed that i had a fibroid tumor in my uterus and that its the size of a 12wk preg. but the only symptoms i have are pain in lower ab. ,pain in lower back and tailbone, and pain in my legs , my periods seem to be reg. and i do bleed a lil heavy when i get them and i some times pass clots the first 2 days . i dont bleed inbetween my periods either at last not yet thank god , i do feel pressure on my pelvic bone , and it has a burning feeling, my breast seem to be hurting and my nipples are burning exspecially when touched . is that normal for having a fibroid tumor? anyways my gyn. told me that i needed a hysterectomy too and well i dotn want to lose my uterus but if ness. i will go , but i am looking into geting that ufe prcedure . the only thing that alarms me is that my doc only did a pelvic exam and didnt go any further to make sure that is what i had and told me that i needed surgry , i find that a bit wierd and scary !if any1 can help pls email @ lilnikki_xo27xo@yahoo.com

    • ANSWER:
      your doctor is 100% correct, but if you're that concerned that it's correct, go see another GYN, who will most likely tell you the same thing.

      Fibroids that large can be dangerous, and almost always grow back. You really want to treat this soon. Pain is not an easy thing to live with, and the risk of endometrial cancers is nothing to ignore.

      Yes, it sucks that you may have to have a hysterectomy, but think of the other alternative, fibroids progessing more and more, causing more and more pain, until they eventually could turn cancerous and can kill you. You have to weight the decision.

  50. QUESTION:
    My mother needs help and i know it but she has no insurance..?
    i wus telling people about my 42 year old mothers problem im so concerned i may even start to cry as iam typing this..thinking that my mother could have cancer is making me crazy.i asked my mother a couple more questions,from what shes telling me before seriously complaining about the bleeding shes been having back pains & for the past 2-3 months bleeding the first 2 months per say she wus bleeding but her blood wus more brown and old it smelled bad and she got blood clots...The in the past 2 week its gotten worse and for the past 2 or 3 nights she hasnt been able to sleep.. at first she said she wus jjust spotting then it turned into that old brown blood then severe heavy bleeding and the stabbing pains and cramps got worse..but she tells me she feels the pains most when shes laying down..i asked her what it felt like and she sayd like contractions..and that it stops and starts again .. i called her at work and she said she feels fine but shes not sure how shell feel later..help plzz

    • ANSWER:
      Please,please,tel your mother to get medical attention now. Her symptoms sound just like what I had and mine turned out to be uterine (endometrial) cancer and I required a hysterectomy and radiation treatments. I had no insurance either and had put off seeing a doctor until the bleeding got so bad I required several blood transfusions. Even while I was bleeding so heavily,I worked full time and felt OK most of the time so feeling fine is not an indication that her health is good.If you are under 18 she can apply for a public aid medical card ( I had to do this ) and because she will be off work for awhile if she has surgery,they will average her income so she can qualify. Even if she is not eligible, going into debt is better than dying. Uterine cancer can take years to kill her but the quality of life she will have is very poor so get her to the doctor to find out what the problem is. My prayers are with both of you.

endometrial cancer symptoms after hysterectomy